Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase ( Alk ) Essay

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase ( Alk ) Essay

Length: 1139 words (3.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements represent the primary oncogenic driver in 3–5% of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene being the most frequent translocation partner [1-3]. ALK inhibitor crizotinib has been associated with over 60% response rate in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLCs [4, 5], as shown by multicenter clinical trials [6, 7]. In these clinical trials, ALK status was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Vysis break-apart probe set (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, Ill), which is the only diagnostic assay licensed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to date [3, 8, 9].
In addition to the percentage of cells with ALK rearrangements, the break-apart FISH assay also provides information on the ALK gene copy number per cell. In contrast to the rarity of ALK gene rearrangement, ALK gene copy number gain (CNG) is a relatively common finding in NSCLCs, with a reported incidence of up to 63% [10, 11]. CNG is divided into two categories: low copy numbers with a mean copy number of 3–5 are usually due to polysomy status, whereas high copy numbers with over 6 copies per cell are due to ALK gene amplification. The incidence rate of CNG is significantly higher in NSCLC without ALK rearrangement than that in NSCLC with ALK rearrangement [12]. Very few previous studies with conflicting results have been reported on the biological roles of ALK CNG [12-15]. The clinical significance of ALK CNG is unclear, and it is unknown whether patients with combined ALK translocation and CNG respond differently to ALK inhibitor. Herein, we reported a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma that demonstrated combined ...

... middle of paper ...

...confers resistance to crizotinib [26]. The sensitivity of the tumor to ALK inhibitor in this case is at least comparable, or even superior, to that in previously reported cases of ALK-positive tumors, which were reported to have a median progression-free survival of 8–10 months [4, 5, 7, 9]. This indicates that ALK gene CNG due to polysomy status does not affect, and may increase the tumor’s sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. De novo ALK CNG in combination with ALK translocations might lead to a different outcome in response to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors with compared with acquired ALK CNG. Therefore, patients with ALK CNG in addition to ALK translocation may gain additional benefits from ALK inhibitor therapy. More cases with combined ALK CNG and translocation and their treatment responses to ALK inhibitors are needed to further evaluate its clinical significance.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Hodgkin 's Lymphoma And Lymphoma Essay

- Hodgkin 's Lymphoma Warren C. Ramos Carrington College ENG 113 Hodgkin 's Lymphoma It was the Christmas holiday season of 2013 and Uncle Sonny was healthy, happy, and full of vigor. Uncle Sonny was 58-year-old weighing 180 pounds and standing at a height of 5.10 inches. However, the family watched in utter desperation as Uncle Sonny’s body mass and height degenerate gradually to 92 pounds and 5.8 inches respectively. The most devastating scenario for the family was watching Uncle Sonny waste away on the hospital bed while looking hopeless and dull....   [tags: Lymphoma, Cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma]

Better Essays
1285 words (3.7 pages)

A Short Note On Lymphoma And Non Hodgkin Lymphoma Essay

- When you hear the word Lymphoma most people know it means one thing; Cancer. Lymphoma does mean cancer, and it is the type of cancer that affects your lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the body’s immune system. This system helps to fight infection and disease ( There is not a for sure cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but there are two types of Hodgkin lymphomas. One is Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and the other is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma is also known as NHL, and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than Hodgkin’s lymphoma (   [tags: Lymphoma, Cancer, Immune system, Chemotherapy]

Better Essays
711 words (2 pages)

Essay on A Short Note On Lymphoma And Its Effects On The World Today

- Expository: Lymphoma There are many sources of fear in the world today. One of the largest fear one can have is to be diagnosed with Cancer. This expository piece will delve into the history of Cancer, the symptoms of it, the treatment options, and the road to recovery. Cancer is a disease that all too many people are familiar with. According to the National Center for Health Statistics survey, this debilitating disease kills approximately 7.6 million people a year. The first cases of cancer date all the way back to the year 1600 BC....   [tags: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Bone marrow, Lymphoma]

Better Essays
929 words (2.7 pages)

Tyrosine Kinase and the Importance in Biological System Essay

- Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid, which is synthesized by hydroxylation of an essential amino acid phenylalanine. Protein Kinases are group of enzymes that play an important role in the complexity of the several biological systems present in the human body. The genetic information of humans is known to consist of about 500 protein kinases, which are structurally identified by having a 3-dimensional structure.1 Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups to residues of tyrosine by the use phosphate obtained from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)....   [tags: chemotherapy, amino acid, enzymes, chemistry]

Better Essays
1193 words (3.4 pages)

Hodgkin's Lymphoma is a Curable Cancer Essay

- Hodgkin’s Lymphoma According to the National Cancer Center, there were approximately 9,290 new cases of individuals being diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in the United States in 2013 with only 1,180 of those cases resulting in death. It has been said that Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is one of the most curable cancers even in its late stages. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma is classified as being cancer of the B cells in the lymphatic system in which the B cells grow abnormally. Unlike normal B cells, which divide and die off, the diseased B cells do not....   [tags: nodes, diagnosis, tumor]

Better Essays
824 words (2.4 pages)

Hodgkin And Non Hodgkin Lymphoma Essay

- Hodgkin and non Hodgkin Lymphoma When cells in the lymphatic system grow at an abnormal rate, it creates a malignant tumor, Cancer. Hodgkin lymphoma and Non- Hodgkin lymphoma are both cancers that originate in white blood cells, in the lymphatic system. The system is responsible for fighting infection, bacteria, viruses, and removing damaged cells by producing lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell that is important to the immune system; they decide how the immune system will respond to infections or any an familiar organism)....   [tags: Immune system, Blood, Bone marrow]

Better Essays
1266 words (3.6 pages)

The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Essay

- Introduction Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (LLS) is the worlds largest non-profit organization which funds blood cancer research and providing patient services and education. The LLS mission is to cure leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma and to improve quality of patients and there families. This is done by discovering new cures and making blood cancers a story of the past.The organizations national office is located in White Plains, NY. Leukemia and Lymphoma Society has local chapters through out the United States and Canada....   [tags: non profit organizations, blood cancer research]

Better Essays
1085 words (3.1 pages)

Burkitt's Lymphoma Disease Essay

- ... Hodgkin’s disease is distinguished from other lymphomas by the abnormal Reed-Sternberg cell , named for the pathologist who first detected it which can be seen easily under a microscope. Hodgkin’s disease tends to spread from one cluster to the next and responds predictably t treatment. It usually starts in lymph nodes in the neck or under the collarbone, spreads into the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, spleen, lungs and bone marrow. Type and Classification of Burkitt’s lymphoma The classification of Burkitt’s lymphoma describes three clinical variants: Endemic (African), sporadic (the predominant type found in non-malarial areas, non-African), and immunodeficiency-associated.(3) These types...   [tags: childhood cancer]

Better Essays
3208 words (9.2 pages)

Lymphoma Essay

- Lymphoma Lymphoma or lymphatic cancer is a very serious and life threatening disease. In this country there is an estimated 63,900 new cases, 7,100 of which are Hodgkin’s lymphoma as opposed to non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Since around the 70’s the occurrence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma has almost doubled while the occurrence of Hodgkin’s disease has declined. (Steen, 1993) Lymphoma is the name given to a cancer that infects the lymphatic system....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Better Essays
1499 words (4.3 pages)

Lymphoma: What To Expect Essay

- On December 16, my life changed forever. I was in my third semester of college and had just finished my last final exam. Having studied all night, I headed to the university game room to shoot some pool and relax. After a few games I felt painful spasms in my neck and shoulder. At first I thought it was a “pinched” nerve, and I tried to ignore it, but the pain just got worse. I wanted to go home, but I had promised my girlfriend we would meet. As I walked to her building the pain shifted to my chest and I grew short of breath....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Free Essays
7821 words (22.3 pages)