KEYWORDS: seismic hazard map; earthquake; collapse; building; damage; seismic wave
The continental drift theory and plate tectonics theory was first put forward by the German geologist and meteorologist Alfred Wegener at the beginning of the 20th century. He proposed that there was a single continental in 200 million years ago, and the Earth’s crust slowly separate to pieces by the centrifugal pseudo force because of the rotation of the Earth. On the basis of plate tectonics theory there are two components in the Earth which are lithosphere and asthenosphere, the upper layer is lithosphere and the lower layer is asthenosphere. However, the lithospheric plates slowly move in a complex pattern, and the flow velocity is about 2-10 cm/year (Adam T. Mansur, 2010). There are there different kinds of plate boundaries of movement due to continental drift theory: divergent boundaries, convergent boundaries and transform boundaries as figure 2 shown.
Figure 1: Plate Tectonics (Adam T. Mansur, 2010)
Figure 2: Plate Boundaries Types (Adam T. Mansur, 2010)
Plate tectonics can explain why there are earthquakes in the Earth reasonably. The definition of the earthquake is a fast and sudden movement of the Earth’s along geological faults, and the energy stored in stones is releasing in the meantime (Valentic, 2010). Figure 3 is showing some earthquake terminologies. There are m...
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Figure 10: The Influence Earthquake Damage of Local Geologic Features (Panzera et al, 2013)
In this paper, seismic hazard maps are very important to predict the hazards of earthquake, and decrease the seismic risk as much as possible. Many buildings will collapse or destruct in earthquake, but different types of buildings will react differently. The degree of destroy for modern building is lower than old buildings because of Construction Code and modern techniques. However, it is difficult to judge high or low rise building which is safe in earthquake, it is depends on resonance. Ground condition also can affect the amplitude and duration of shaking by earthquake, shaking in soft soil is larger and longer compare with the shaking in hard sediments. Seismic hazard maps are very important and useful for civil engineers to design the structures.
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