Particulate matter (PM) is a comprehensive air pollutant that is made up of a mixture of solid and liquid particulates within the atmosphere. Poor air quality has a negative effect on human health; however soils, vegetation, and visibility can also be affected (AAQC, 2012). Particulate matter can vary among sizes, ranging from 0.005µm to 100µm in diameter (Environment Canada, 1999). The most common method to identify PM is to determine if the diameter is equal or less than 2.5µm. If the diameter size of the PM is equal or less than 2.5µm in diameter, then they are classified as fine particle, commonly known as PM2.5.Diameter that is greater than 2.5µm are considered to be coarse particles or PM10.Both size particles can be emitted directly into the atmosphere as a primary pollutant or it could be formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere as a secondary pollutant. Both primary and secondary PM can be made both naturally or by anthropogenic processes.
Fine particles, size ranges from 0.1 to 2.5µm are commonly the result of condensation of vapours on to existing particles, which has the ability to grow in size (Environment Canada, 1999). Fine particles matter from home firewood-burning activities; industry, forest fires, and burning waste also fall under this category (Environment Canada, 2013). From their size, PM2.5 may persist in the atmosphere for days to weeks (Environment Canada, 1999; Environment Canada, 2004). Atmospheric removal of are least effective within this range. However, precipitation is one of the primary processes which these fine particles are removed (Environment Canada, 1999). Coarse particles are typically connected to natural mechanical processes, such as breaking waves, wind erosio...
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... The National Air Pollution Surveillance Program – Forty years of air quality monitoring and assessment. Environment Canada
NSEL - Nova Scotia Environment and Labour. (2006). Ambient Air Quality in Nova Scotia. Air Quality Branch
Parks Canada. 2010 – 10 – 04. Kejimkujik National Park and National Historical Site of Canada. [November 3, 2013]. Available from: http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/ns/kejimkujik/visit/visit2.aspx
Shabtai, B., Mikkelsen, R. (2009). Ammonia Emission from Agricultural Operations: Livestock. Better Crops. 93 (1): 28 - 32
Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 2012. Ontario’s Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC).
WHO – World Health Organization. (2013). Health Effects of Particulate Matter: Policy Implication for countries in Eastern Europe, Caucausus and central Asia. WHO regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark
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