Before considering what led Candide to lose faith in Pangloss’ philosophy, it is important to briefly consider what Pangloss’ philosophy entailed. Critically, Pangloss was essentially a parody of the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who had published a work titled Théodicée in 1710, addressing the problem of evil in a universe divinely planned by a benevolent God. In it, he argued that the world was imperfect, as it was made of matter, but it was nonetheless the best of all possible worlds, as it was created by a compassionate God. ...
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...e of positive action on all levels, a lesson Candide was at last beginning to grasp.
Adams, Robert M. “Summary: The Intellectual Backgrounds.” In Candide: Second Edition, edited
by Robert M. Adams, 79-84. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1991.
Mason, Haydn. “Gestation: Candide Assembling Itself.” In Candide: Second Edition, edited by
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