At the very outset of the book, Pangloss, a tutor and philosopher, puts forth the idea that the human world is the best world and whatever happens in this amazing world serves the best function possible. This notion of Pangloss is the main question of the book, but his blind optimism stands in contrast with the suffering and injustices of the story itself. If this is the best world, how is it possible that people are beaten, raped and murdered? Savagery is still common, the Bulgars raped Cuegonde, and horribly killed her family, after which they burned down the castle, the most beautiful castle according to Pangloss. The old woman was raped with her mother and servants by the Moors, then she was sold and raped over and over again by different people...
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... to see our faults and accept those, who are different. There is always an inside and an outside group. Whoever belongs to the inside group is civilized and reasonable and those, who are different, must be inferior. Yet when one looks at this story without identifying oneself with anyone, it becomes obvious that there is little difference between the savage and the civilized. Candide is no more civilized than the Lobeiros tribe, as he had committed murder before but he justifies his action through common reasoning, just as the actions of murder, rape and maiming are justified if they are committed by the inside group, the so-called civilized and reasonable world. Therefore the real savageness of people, exemplified by Candide, manifests in ignorance and rigidity, yet there is a certain kind of comedy in that really nothing has changed since the beginning of time.
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