Head Start Program
Overview of the Policy
The Head Start Program, typically referred to solely as Head Start, is offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The program was inaugurated in 1964 as a means of preparing children from low-income families to enter kindergarten with a higher level of preparation (Gillette, 2010). Head Start is funded through the Head Start Act of 1981, which was reauthorized in 2007. Head Start has a budget of over $7 billion and has its own teachers and aides (Banner, 2011).
In fiscal year 2009, the latest year for which data is available from the Administration for Children and Families (2010), the home to the Office of Head Start within the Department of Health and Human Services had an enrollment of 904,153, of which 3% were five-year-olds or older, 51% were four-year-olds, 46% were three-year-olds, and 10% were under three years of age. Children three and under are part of what is known as Early Head Start, an extension of the program that serves the youngest children. The Administration for Children and Families further disclosed that, in fiscal year 2010, 39.9% of children enrolled in Head Start were white, 30% were African-American or Black, and 35.9% were Latino. The sum of the...
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...y. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Barnett, W.S. & Hustedt, J.T. (2003). Head Start’s lasting benefits. Infants and Young Children, 18(1), 16-24.
Black, E. & Black, M. (2003). The rise of southern republicans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gillette, M.L. (2010). Launching the war on poverty. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Meyers, M.K. & Gornick, J.C. (2003). Public or private responsibility? Early childhood education and care, inequality, and the welfare state. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34, 379-411.
Mindick, B. (1986). Social engineering in family matters. New York, NY: Praeger.
Vinovskis, M.A. (2008). The birth of head start. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wainryb, C., Smetana, J.G., & Turiel. E. (2008). Social development, social inequalities, and social justice. New York, NY: CRC Press.
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