To begin with, Todd begins the article by explaining why there is such a call for cosmopolitan studies in today’s society. She says, “calls for a cosmopolitan direction have gravitated around a constellation of ideas, peaceful coexistence, global harmony, world citizenship, universal human rights, and forms of hybrid belonging” (Todd 3). This is because advocates see it as a possibility for harmony across the world, but the problem with this is that individual’s rights depend on their country and government. Therefore, this call for harmony strongly appeals to Universalist ideas, which is formulating universal conditions in that coexistence can be more democratic and harmonious. The call for universalist ideas fails to recognize the dissonance that does exist in our society.
Moreover, Chantal Mouffe, criticizes this idea of cosmopolitanism ignores the political, “the set of practices and institutions through which order is created.” Mouffe claims is proposing a model that will deal with the conflicts that inevitable arise from having different viewpoints, beliefs, and practices. Mouffe’s suggestion is to turn social antagonism into democratically amenable forms of conflict...
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...me idea for sexual rehabilitation, in which one must create a positive identity in a process called resexualization.
Additionally, Galvin explains that this idea of individual change leads to self-blame and fail to question the flaws that are attached to the systems. This is why Galvin proposes that, “once we accept that ‘work’ and ‘sexuality’ have been utilized as key organizing concepts to divide disability from normality since the outset of modernity, it is possible to view them in a more critical and illuminating way.” Galvin’s analysis relates to Todd’s argument for agonistic cosmopolitics because society would have to recognize the dissonance in society and create a new language to discuss how disability is a social construction that continues to divide individual. Society itself has created this unique identity that is used to show who an ideal citizen is.
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