Neurons are individual cells that are part of the nervous system. They receive, incorporate and transmit impulses. Signals are obtained from dendrites which “passes through the soma” via the axon. The signal then is transferred to other dendrites of other cells meeting at synapses. For all this to happen a special tool is required, which is known as Myelin. Myelin is an imperative component of neurons that enable it to send out efficient signals. Without myelin the body will become dysfunctional. The brain and the spinal cord will not be able to communicate or with the rest of the nerves in the body. As a result this will lead to the appearance of many symptoms that may affect the sensory neurons or motor neurons etc. For example, there are a number of demyelinating diseases that have these symptoms however this essay will predominantly focus on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) discussing its neuropsychological impacts.
Moreover, before dwelling into the main focus of this essay myelin is a sheath that is made up of lipid fat and proteins coated around one or more axons. The myelin sheath is formed in both CNS and PNS, however, the cell that produces it is different. In the PNS, myelin is formed by the Schwann cell that repeatedly wraps around a single axon. Where as in the CNS, glia cells produce myelin around that encase around numerous axons. The myelin sheath works like an insulator that encapsulates the axon; preventing electrical signals from diffusing and increases the speed of propagation of the action potential along the axon. This is achieved by making electrical jumps amongst the gaps of the axon known as ...
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