Analysis of Propaganda: First Theories of Decoding and Effects Essay

Analysis of Propaganda: First Theories of Decoding and Effects Essay

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1) assumptions
In this paper I discuss several assigned articles with regard to the assumptions, focus, time and space contexts, stated purpose, and comparison between certain articles. Except for one article, all articles in this weekly reading are assumed to use post-structuralist paradigm. In their article, Lobao & Meyer (2001) encourage the readers to use combination of macro, meso, and micro approach in understanding agricultural transformation rather than only macro approach. For example, they urge the Human Ecology Theory (PEP), which is micro theory about individual’s adaptation to the dynamic of environment like population density, culture and technologies, and bio-physical environment. They criticize the PEP paradigm as heavily oriented in structural approach, neglecting the dynamic of socio-psychological factors of individual and social practices. For Lobao & Meyer, micro level of the household dynamic is crucial to understand the survival mechanism of the smallholder farmers to seek “strategic business behavior” (p. 112). Moreover, gender division, particularly with regard to the struggle of women in on-farm and off-farm activities is important. The Lobao and Meyer’s article also highlights the regional context of agri-related policies, such as agricultural loans which tend to be biased to certain ethnic groups, a fact that may be overlooked by the PEP. For comparison, Bernstein’s article is also in similar vein, in which he looks at the case of Green Revolution in India as not “resource neutral” (p. 61), by giving more access to the richer farmers to any program innovation packages (like credits, supply of inputs, and information). Lobao & Meyer’s article’s on famers’ action in politic to defend their interests ...

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...le. Similarly, but with different case, Pechllaner and Otero (2008) describe the recent case resistance of the Mexican toward the introduction of biotech foods by international companies via trade liberalization.
To sum up, while most of the articles have similar post-structural paradigm --which assume that local and regional factors are crucial factors in understanding agricultural transition— the focus of study, time-space contexts, and purpose of study, are different. The articles provide excellent perspectives and various examples in different time and across geographical boundaries regarding the needs of assessing the complexity of agricultural stakeholders, particularly the struggle of farmers as individual, household, or community (including the food consumers), to adapt with the change of external forces, which influence their livelihoods and interests.

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