Word ‘culture’ in a modern shape was mentioned by The Roman orator and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero in (106-43 BC) in his "Tuscola conversations". Marcus Tullius Cicero used the word "culture" in a figurative meaning, describing the philosophy as a "soul culture" ("cultura animae"). In other words he believed that a person engaged in philosophy, has the ‘culture’ of the soul and mind (Tullius Cicero, 106-43 BC). One of the first researchers who used the term "culture" in a broader meaning, was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist, statesman, and historian of the XVII century Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1694). In his point of view, culture represents the totality of everything that has ever been created by the actions of members of the society, therefore, culture exists because of people and social life (Seidler, M., 2010). The significant characteristic of humanity is that people themselves create the environment they live in. Indeed, the life experience of people let them create around themselves not only the material world, which includes buildings, tools, bridges, canals, cultivated land, but also nonmaterial world - the world of human relationships, including social behavior, a set of rules and procedures for basic needs. This wor...
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... Bloom, pp. 310-328, 1995).
To sum up, it is needed to be stated that culture, firstly, is everything made by mankind – manually or mentally. That is why culture structuralizes our life and society giving senses and values to them. However, culture is not able to organize the whole range of meanings – as it happened in 1960s in France and USA, where culture was unable to regularize the life of the youth. Therefore, some areas of the life are defined by subculture and counterculture, with the first mostly determining superficial concepts, as style and behavior, and the second opposing itself against the mainstream. It is well known that only by studying the experience of the past, it is possible to understand the modernity. Therefore, it seems useful to know about subcultures of our society in order to better understand the nature of modern community and culture.
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