Many of the stories throughout the epic mention gods. The gods represent civilization and test the men’s ability to follow Society 's laws. The first test happens with the bag of winds that will take them home as long as they do not open the bag. The war, however, has destroyed the men 's sense of self control and they “cannot resist the temptation to disobey.” (Niles) They open the bag and let all of the winds out right before they make it home. Homer targets this lack of self control throughout the piece to show the monster like qualities within the returning warriors. The bag more specifically represents laws and the fact that Odysseus ' men are not ready to follow them. So the gods send them back to Aeolus because they are not human enough to return home yet. They then proceed to give Odysseus and his men a second chance when they reach Thrinacia. At Thrinacia the gods tell the men that they may rest there as long as they do not harm the sun god’s cattle. Yet again, they disobey. The Zeus kills the men, “just as they had killed the cattle.” (Niles)The gods must kill Odysseus men because they will never be ready to return h...
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...recognizes him, the represents Penelope long wait for Odysseus to return home. Penelope also demands to talk to Odysseus in his disguise about where her husband is and then chooses to talk about completely unrelated topic. Penelope also sets up a “the bow-contest” (Richardson) for the suitors that only Odysseus could pull off. Penelope’s action do fit her normal characteristics. Before talking to Odysseus, Penelope seems to “be most eager to put off the marriage decision.” (Richardson) These actions and symbols suggest that Penelope knows that the beggar is actually Odysseus. However, after the battle or slaughter of the suitors Penelope no longer seems as sure that Odysseus is Odysseus. After the battle Penelope test him by asking Euryleia, the maid to bring “the bed outside”(Homer 462). This shows that Odysseus is no longer recognizable after his monstrous actions.
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