The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis and evaluation of the Types of Emotion from the scientific/empirical and Islamic perspectives. The paper presumes that the readers are familiar with the content of the topic in question based on the introductory Psychology textbook by Ciccarelli and White (2010). Therefore, this paper will focus more the analysis and evaluation, rather than the description and details of the topic.
Types of Emotion
An emotion is experienced as a feeling that motivates, organizes, and guides perception, thought, and action (Izard, 1991). Emotions can be classified into three major categories which are: (1) the physiology of emotion, (2) the behaviour of emotion, and (3) the subjective experience of emotion (Ciccarelli & White, 2010; Kagan, 2007).
Physiology of Emotion
When one experiences an emotion, they would be physically aroused. This arousal is created by the sympathetic nervous system (Ciccarelli & White, 2010). Emotions are manifested in both the outward bodily reactions as well as the inner biological and physiological reactions. Ekman (1980) stated that different emotions produce different facial expressions (as cited in Ciccarelli & White, 2010). However these facial expressions may be misread and misinterpreted. This is especially the case across cultures. According to Levenson (1992), the physiological reactions however, are more easily distinguishable than the outward bodily reactions (as cited in Ciccarelli & White, 2010).
A recent study by Matsumoto and Willingham (2009) suggests that facial expressions of emotions are hardwired into the brain, rather than learned as the result of visual experience. Researchers analyzed the facial expressions of sighted and blind ju...
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Izard, C. (1991). The psychology of emotion (1st ed.). New York, N.Y.: Plenum press.
Kagan, J. (2007). What is emotion? (1st ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.
Matsumoto, D., & Willingham, B. (2009). Spontaneous facial expressions of emotion of congenitally and noncongenitally blind individuals. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 96(1), 1-10. doi:10.1037/a0014037
Nevid, J. (2012). Essentials of psychology (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Niedenthal, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). Psychology of emotion (1st ed.). New York: Psychology Press.
Oatley, K., Keltner, D., & Jenkins, J. (2006). Understanding emotions (1st ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
Plutchik, R. (1994). The psychology and biology of emotion (1st ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollinsCollegePublishers.
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