An analysis of the relationship between the hospitality culture and employees in China

An analysis of the relationship between the hospitality culture and employees in China

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According to Adelman et al. (1994); Bitner(1990); King (1985); King and Garey (1997),former research on service management have not considered the influence of culture on provide the service from staff. Tsang (2011) state that hospitality culture were focused on researches in recent years in China. Hospitality culture is not only very important for the hospitality industry, but also very significant for employees. In addition, hospitality culture is involved four factors: materials culture, behaviors culture, spiritual culture and rules culture. The key point of hospitality culture is spiritual culture, because this can determine the value of other cultures in the hospitality organization.

Why hospitality culture so significant?
There is some evidences to prove that hospitality culture is significant to the hotel organization. The First aspect, hospitality culture can improve the hotel services level and increase the turnover level. Mattila (1999) and Stauss and Mang (1999) argued that the customer estimate the service would depend on hospitality culture.The hotel has strict discipline to manage the staff, and staff must comply with the institutions during their working time. According to Martin and Lundberg(1991), Bennigan's is a America restaurant chain, it created research to find out why consumers did not come to their restaurants. The consequence is that only 15 per cent of consumers did not satisfied with the food, but 67 per cent of the consumers are dissatisfied with the staff's attitude. For instance, customers receive satisfying services, so they will remember these services and want to receive those services again next time. Although this is not enough to evaluate the results of a hotel service, it can make a good impression in customers’ minds.

Secondly, it is not easy to fail the hotel have good culture in the strong competition of the hospitality industry. Nowadays, more and more businesses are focusing on hotels, so the hotel industry is face with fierce competition. When hotels have the same level of facilities,and hotel culture is the key point to estimate the hotel services. In addition, hotel culture can improve the position in the same industry.

Hospitality culture and employees influence on each other.
On the one hand, hospitality culture has some advantages and disadvantages to affect employees. At first, it can promote the skills of employees, because the hospitality lay out to train the employees’ skills. Shames and Glover (1988) claimed that human interaction and communication are involved in service experience as same as a social experience.

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Every hospitality management want employees own higher skills than the other hospitality, so there are some free training class to promote employees’ skills. In addition, employees are willing to join this class. Not only they do not have to pay for the class, but also they can acquire skills and constantly upgrade themselves in their working live. Secondly, hospitality culture can influence on employees’ values. According to Tsang(2011,P671) “Cultural values can also shape the beliefs and attitudes and guide the behavior of people.”Although every staff own values in their minds, not all staffs’ values are reasonable. If staff works in the hospitality which culture is good, they will acquire some new values and improve the quality of themselves. Thirdly, hospitality culture also has negative impact on employees. Tsang (2011) pointed that the hospitality culture is impact on the staff's behavior. Different hotel have different cultures, so not every employee can adapt to every hotel culture. This means the people who can not adapt to the culture in the hotel, and they have to change their jobs many times, until they find a job and acclimatize themselves to hotel culture. Consequently, they may miss significant opportunities in their work-life.

On the other hand, employees can also influence on hospitality culture. One point is high quality of employees could consolidate the hospitality culture. Moreover, the hospitality culture would not be changed easily by new employees. Nonetheless, it is hard for hospitality to retain employees if hospitality culture is very difficult to adapt. The staff loss would cause the waste of the hotel cost, because the hospitality spends much money to train the staffs when they come to this organization at the first time. At the same time, the cost of training lose to follow the staff change the organization, and the hospitality need to spend other cost to employ the new staff. Dawson and Abbott (2009) stated that a good culture is main point to retain staffs in the hospitality. According to Diane (2007), the McDonald's, Disney, Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels chains become successful organization, for their have ingrained hospitality cultures.

How to build a good culture in hospitality organization?
According to the renowned hotel, Shangri-la ,it’s the organization culture is “People-oriented”. Firstly, the hotel must respect and comprehend the employee, and let employee feel very comfortable when they are working at the hotel. It not only creates a good work environment, but also decreases the number of people who want to resign. For example, the Shangri-la staff’s canteen is a space of leisure and comfort, and some staff feel that it looks like their family. Secondly, hospitality should help staff formulate the plan of occupation. The organization could provide the opportunities of the skill and the knowledge training. Hotel train the staff not only to improve the staff, but also improve the hotel itself. Thirdly, the hospitality could raise the suitable of the salary. When employees feel the giving and receiving are not equality, and they will choose job-hopping. Furthermore, the hotel increases the salary not only retain the staff, but also could attract more ability people to employ. In teams of hospitality, it should cultivate the staff’s spirit of group.

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