An action potential is caused when different ions cross the neuron membrane, a stimulus causes the sodium channels to open which then causes the sodium ion to rush into the neuron (Faculty.washington.edu, 2010). When potassium channels open the potassium ion rushes into the cell reversing the depolarization which causes the sodium channels to close which gradually causes the ion concentrations to go back to resting levels (Faculty.washington.edu, 2010).
An action potential is introduced at the neuromuscular junction is propagated along the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle (Highered.mheducation.com, 2006). At the t- tubule the action potential is propagated on the t- tubule membrane into the inside of the muscle cell near the ends of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Highered.mheducation.com, 2006). The depolarization of the t-tubule membrane causes the calcium ion channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum to open resulting in the increase of permeability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to calcium ions (Highered.mheducation.com, 2006).
Calcium ions then diffuse from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm (Highered.mheducation.com, 2006). Tropomyosin proteins lie on the two sides of the actin myofilament covering up myosin binding sites on the actin myofilament (Highered.mheducation.com, 2006). ...
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...mpleted the tension developed during each twitch increases till it hits a max, a certain height is reached and a plateau is formed which is called the Trepee effect (Depts.gpc.edu, n.d.). Which basically mean that when a series of strong electrical stimulus of the same strength is initiated and the muscle has no relaxation period (Depts.gpc.edu, n.d.).
If the stimulus is repeated at a sufficiently high rate the muscle will not relax between each stimulus thus it will remain in a contacted state this is known as tetanus (Weiss 2000). There of which are two types of tetanus the first type is complete tetanus where there is a period of no rest and incomplete tetanus where there is a partial relaxation period (Weiss 2000).
All of the above are types of wave summations that occur when a stimulus is created each of which have a different effect on the muscle contraction.
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