Though Anglo-American relations are not currently hostile, they were not always this way. This paper will explore the free trade beliefs of Richard Cobden, and show that Americans who rejected his ideas did so out of ignorance and fear. The paper will begin with a description of Cobden’s context and beliefs and then move to an analysis of American Anglophobia and Anglomania and governmental responses to Cobden.
Trade liberalization in Great Britain signaled an era of intense change in the European economy. The document that triggered this change was the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860. Anglo-French trade antagonisms had reached an agonizing level for the two countries, beginning with the Congress of Vienna and climaxing with the introduction and eventual repeal of the Corn Laws. For more than 30 years, Great Britain engaged France in tariff wars that only served to limit both countries’ trade potential. Accominotti and Flandreau (2008) describe this as a “period of generalized protectionism” (p. 152).
The economic concept of protectionism dates back to Adam Smith’s idea of comparative and absolute advantage. The country with the ability to produce the same amount of a good or service with fewer resources than another country has the absolute advantage. However, if the other country has a lower opportunity cost of producing that same good or service, they have the comparative advantage. Smith argued that “If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our own industry employed in a way in which we have some advantage” (Smith, 1904, IV.2.12).
Richard Cobden’s Beliefs
In response to the Corn Laws, Richard Cobden ...
... middle of paper ...
.... (2013). Foreign Relations in the Gilded Age: A British Free-Trade Conspiracy? Diplomatic History, 37(2).
Smith, A. (1904). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (5th Ed.). (e. Edwin Cannan, Ed.) London: Methuen & Co., Ltd.
Stanwood, E. (1967). American Tariff Controversies in the Nineteenth Century (Vol. II). New York: Russell & Russell.
Stringham, E. P. (2004). Commerce, Markets, and Peace. Independent Review, 9(1), 105-116.
The Cobden Club held its inaugural meeting at the Star. (1866, July 28). The Spectator Archive. Great Britain. Retrieved March 28, 2014, from http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/28th-july-1866/3/the-cobden-club-held-its-inaugural-meeting-at-the-
Tuffnell, S. (2011, March). "Uncle Sam is to be Sacrificed": Anglophobia in Late Nineteenth-Century Politics and Culture. American Nineteenth Century History, 12(1), 77-99.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- In chapter 18, I realized that Romanticism is an artistic and literary movement from Europe in the eighteenth century. It is still present in our lives through individualism. Romantics inspired others to be different rather than following cultural norms using emotions over reasoning and also the separation of Science and Religion. The romantic style was the opposite of neoclassical style and I learned that romantic music was birthed and flourished by Ludwig van Beethoven. He is one of the most well known composers in history, "Besides the nine symphonies, he wrote two Masses, two ballets, one opera, sixteen string quartets, thirty-two piano sonatas, five concertos for piano, one concerto fo... [tags: Industrial Revolution, United States]
817 words (2.3 pages)
- American serial killer, Richard Ramirez was born on February 29, 1960 in El Paso, Texas. Ramirez was known for being a satanic worshiper and for going on a two-year raped and torture rampage, harming more than 25 victims and murdering more than a dozen. Ramirez, also known as the "Night Stalker," turned to satanic worship at an early age by his cousin, a soldier who had recently returned from the war in Vietnam. Following a four-year trial, in 1989, Ramirez was convicted of 13 killings. Ramirez received the death penalty and was sent to San Quentin Prison in California.... [tags: Capital punishment, Murder, Richard Ramirez]
1370 words (3.9 pages)
- According to the reading known as ‘The Anatomy of a Murder: Who Killed America’s Economy’, the author states that there are a variety of causations which influenced and provided an impact through the US financial system. For instance, the banks, the investors, the credit rating agencies, the regulators, the mortgage brokers, and the politicians are explained in his article. Moreover, the author mentions that there are some significant factors such as the financial regulations and political systems which relate with the financial crisis.... [tags: Economy, Finance, America]
2371 words (6.8 pages)
- Jazz: A Reaction to American Life Jazz, the “purest expression of American democracy; a music built on individualism and compromise, independence and cooperation” has had a great impact on American life since the early 1900s (Burns, 2009). When jazz first emerged on the scene, it immediately made a profound impact on all individuals who experienced it. It didn’t matter who you were. This being said, jazz was especially life changing for the African American population. It opened the door of opportunity for this group of people, and they quickly grasped onto this chance before it could disappear.... [tags: African American, Jazz, Southern United States]
714 words (2 pages)
- Over the last 3 years the United States has seen an incredible flux in the economy from an all time high, to the lowest position since the Great Depression. Many Americans have no idea why or how these cycles affect their everyday lives, most importantly, they do not understand how the government intervenes to control these issues. Most people cannot comprehend the complexity of the United States banking system, how the Federal Reserve (FED) controls interest rates, the way our currency works, inflation, credit, etc… This is just a small list from a plethora of topics, that American’s are under-educated, and these are issues that we all need to face at some point in our lives.... [tags: economy,]
1591 words (4.5 pages)
- The United States in the 1870s was highly agrarian focused, centered on the local community with individuals taking pride in their work. This was a time where small businesses and farms were the center of the American economy. In a striking comparison, the early 20th century marked an era of heavy industrialization and a wider view of the nation as a whole. The decades in between were filled with violent and rapid change in all aspects of American life. By and large through the expansion of business across state lines, an explosion of growth in railroads, and huge leaps in the technologies responsible for efficient industry.... [tags: United States, Economy of the United States]
1104 words (3.2 pages)
- It’s Monday morning, another weekend over, a new week full of decisions and obstacles for President Obama. A slowly growing economy, tensions with North Korea and soldiers still in Afghanistan and Iraq the President is always quite busy. Even though the President has lots of ad-visors to help him make decision's some advice that would really aid the president is the lesson that “Think before you act, be sure not to overreact” Some examples from the Cold War era that support this lesson are The Cuban Missile Crisis, The My Lai Massacre (involving napalm and agent orange) and the incident at Kent State.... [tags: american foreign policy]
1011 words (2.9 pages)
- The American Reaction to Involvement in Vietnam In the early 60s, most Americans were very ignorant about Vietnam. They just saw it as a little concern. They were an extremely confident nation who had never lost a war to date, and whose resources were limitless. So they naturally assumed that all their weapons and firepower would ensure victory in a couple of months. Patriotism was very strong in America at that time. Many people remembered the McCarthy trials of the 1950's, so people were extremely aware of the anti-Communist feelings in the country in the early 1960's.Most Americans believed the 'Domino Theory' during these years, and so most were in favour of m... [tags: American History, World History]
860 words (2.5 pages)
- Looking for Answers in Looking for Richard Al Pacino's "Looking for Richard" is an unusual film. It is a documentary about the complexities of Shakespeare, the performing of the play Richard III, and the ignorance of the average American regarding Shakespeare. The unusual nature of the film - it's similar to a filmed Cliff-notes version of the text - provokes wildly different reactions from film buffs, critics, and Shakespeare purists. A perusal of five different reviews of the film show such variant descriptors that range from Mary Brennan's comment that the documentary is "decidedly narcissistic" to Edwin Jahiel's comment that the film is an "original, mesmerizing exploration." T... [tags: Looking for Richard Essays]
1832 words (5.2 pages)
- Intro With a GDP per capita of $4,100 Paraguay is the second poorest country in all of South America right behind Bolivia. In this paper I will look to explain some of the reasons behind the lack of growth in the Paraguayan economy. I believe that being a landlocked nation without direct access to a major ocean waterway, political instability over the last 110 years, and a large portion of the population that severely lacks proper water and sanitation resources, all combine to play a crucial role in Paraguay’s poor economic development.... [tags: South America, Poverty, Economy]
2080 words (5.9 pages)