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Introduction: Am radio uses Amplitude Modulation (AM), which works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent. When you tune into an AM radio station, for example 1560 on the AM dial the transmitter’s sine wave is transmitted the data at 1560,000 hertz. What this number essentially means is that the sine wave repeats every 1560,000 times per second. The data is modulated onto the carrier wave by changing the amplitude of this sine wave. The radio station uses and amplifier in order to amplify the signal. For large AM stations the signal is amplified to about 50,000 watts. After the signal has been amplified the radio station sends the radio waves out into space with the help of an antenna. This is essentially how data gets transmitted from an AM station onto a radio receiver. Now let’s take at the inner working of an AM receiver and required steps in order to take that signal from the air and into a speaker.
Provided below is a block diagram of an AM receiver.
Antenna: The purpose of the antenna is to capture the radio signal from the air waves and into the tuner. An AM antenna is simply a wire or a metal stick.
Tuner: The antenna will pick up many signals. The function of the tuner is to separate obtain the specific signal you need and ignore the others. For example, if you are tuned into AM 1560, we want the tuner to isolate every other signal and recover this signal. An AM tuner works on the principle called resonance. What this means is that an AM tuner resonate & amplify at certain frequency and avoids all the other frequencies.
RF Amplifier: The reason we incorporate an RF amplifier into the AM receiver is because an RF Amplifier helps us further improve the signal. The major benefits of using RF amplification are the following:
1. Improved image frequency rejection
2. More gain and thus better sensitivity
3. Improved noise characteristics.
Detector: Once the data has been obtained, we have to extract the voice out of that sine wave. This is where the detector comes into play. For an AM radio, a detector is made from a diode.
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Amplifier: The next stage is to amplify the clipped signal and send it to the speakers. The amplification stage can be accomplished by using op-amps and transistors.
The input signal of this circuit was modeled by a multiplier and two input signals. A 5 kHz and 1 MHz were the intelligence and carrier frequencies. During construction of this circuit, a parallel inductor and capacitor would replace this model. Using the following formula we are able to tune to a desired frequency.
The Inductance value was 85 uH and a Capacitance of 300pf was used in order to tune the circuit at 1MHz.
In the next stage of the AM receiver a BJT transistor setup is used.
As the diagram shows, this stage included several components. The modulated signal is biased so that the transistors a working a class A amplifiers. The capacitor C1 is implementing in order to prevent any of the DC current from flowing tuning circuit. Q1 and Q2 are cascaded in order to provide high input resistance. Q3 is used to prevent loading from the peak detector. Both the input and output of this stage can be found in Figure 2 and 3. The calculations to component values can be found in the sample calculations.
In order to recover the modulated signal a peak detector was used. The following is circuit diagram of this stage.
This design was chosen due to it wide acceptance as peak detector in the communication field. The parallel RC component was chosen so that its Τ will be less than the period of the intelligence signal but greater than the carrier frequency. The output of the peak detector can be found in figure 5. Calculations can be found in sample calculations.
A filter was included to strip the recovered signal of its DC component. The following circuit diagram displays our setup.
A Voltage follower was included in order prevent a change in the peak detectors Τ. The output of the filter can be found in Figure 6.
The final stage is audio amplification. We used a high power Op-Amp in conjunction with a push-pull transistor. The following circuit is a diagram of our design.
Analysis for voltage gain, current gain and heat calculation can be found in the sample calculations. Due to the number of transistors available in the student version, the audio amplifier was simulated in a new project. The output of this amplifier can be found in figure 8 and 9.
Heat- sink Calculation:
In order to calculate the value of the heat sink, we first obtained the power dissipated across each transistor. The power dissipation across each transistor was obtained form P-Spice. The value turned out to be approximately 10 watt per transistor. Once we have the power dissipated across the transistors, we can perform the necessary calculations.
Power Dissipated = 10 watts.
Thermal Compound = Junction to Case = Heat Sink =
Therefore we need two heat sinks with 10.868 C/W
Conclusion: In conclusion this design gave us a deep understanding the AM receiver. Constant design and redesign was needed due to overcompensation. One major learning experience was to go from a basic design to a complex one. Originally we attempted to build the device with one power supply. This gave us many technical problems. In retrospect we would have been better off building a basic dual power supply radio and then move on to the more complex task of a single power supply. Over all this design was somewhat complex but became easier as we broke it down into different steps. This experiment really helped us get much more acquainted with Am receivers and helped reinforce the topics we learned in communications.
November 19th: The project was assigned. Time spent reviewing projects topics and available options. [I Hr]
November 20th: Researched upon project topics in order to finalize which project topic selection. [2 Hr]
November 21st: Finalized project topic and signed up for AM Radio design. [1 Hr]
November 22nd: No time spent on design. [0 Hr]
November 23rd: Start research on AM radio. Researched how AM transmission and reception works. [2 Hr]
November 24th and 25th: No time spent on design. [0 Hr]
November 26th: Start to research upon AM radio circuits and schematics [2 Hr]
November 27th: No time spent on design [0 Hr]
November 28th: Start building circuit on P-Spice. [1 Hr]
November 29th: No time spent on design. [0 Hr]
November 30th: Further Research on different components (RF amplifier, peak detector, etc) of an AM receiver [3 Hr]
December 1st: Made further developments on P-Spice. [2 Hr]
December 2nd: No time spent on design. [0 Hr]
December 3rd: Time spent of calculations needed for components for radio. [2 Hr]
December 4th: Implemented Multiplier into the P-Spice in order to obtain proper input for P-Spic e analysis. [3 Hr]
December 5th: Started on Report as well as looking for parts on Mouser Catalog. [2 Hr]
December 6th: Time spent analyzing circuit on P-Spice and verifying results. [2 Hr]
December 7th: Finalized on all the parts and further verified P-Spice. Calculated the overall cost of our design. [6 Hr]
Total hours spent on design: 29 hrs per person.
40 dollars per person / hour
Therefore our time cost is: (29 x 2) x 40 = 2320 dollars
Consulting Fee (Dr. Mancuso)=$ 200 / hr
# of times consulted = 2
Therefore our consulting fee that we owe Dr. Mancuso is:
(200 x 1) = 200 dollars
Amount owe to the technician for PCB Board layout:
TECH COST AND BOARD LAYOUT COST:
# of holes needed for all the components = 50
50 (0.1) = 5 dollars
PCD BOARD = (2.44 in L x 1.46 in W]
SQUARE INCH = 2.44 X 1.46 = 3.56
COST = 0.75 ( 3.56 ) = 2.67 DOLLARS
5 SECOND PER HOLE = 5 (50 HOLES ) = 250 SECONDS = 4.2 MINUTES
10 SECOND PER COMPONENT = 10 (23) = 230 SECONDS = 3.9 MINUTES
FINAL ASSEMBLY AND TESING = 10 MINTES
TECH TIME NEEDED PER RECEIVER = 10 + 4.2 + 3.9 = 18.1 MINUTES
HOURLY CHARGE FOR TECH = 20 DOLLARS
FOR OUR DEISGN EVEN THOUGH WE ONLY NEED TECH FOR 18 MINUTES, WE DECIDED TO PAY HIM FOR THE HOUR.
SO OVER ALL TECH AND BOARD LAYOUT COST IS:
20 DOLLARS + 5 DOLLARS +2.67 DOLLARS = 27.67 DOLLARS
TOTAL OVERALL COST INCULDING PARTS, LABOR, TIME, AND CONSUTLING FEE:
= 2320 DOLLARS + 200 DOLLARS + 27.67 DOLLARS + 113.41 DOLLARS
= 2661.08 DOLLARS
20 MEG RESISTOR:
1 K RESISTOR:
7 K RESISTOR:
50 K RESISTOR:
8.06 OHM RESISTOR:
100 OHM RESISTOR:
HIGH POWER OP-AMP :
24 V POWER SUPPLY: QUANTITY = 2
1000 PICO FARAD OR 1 NANO FARAD CAPACITOR:
85 MICRO FARAD INDUCTOR:
300 PICO FARAD CAPACITOR:
1 MICRO FARAD CAPACITOR: