As a product of life history, the ageing of the body during middle adulthood is undeniable. Psychologically, realising one’s own ageing is challenging (Lachman, 2001). Fading youthfulness, decline in physical functioning, changing careers and other dramatic alterations in life often cause anxiety and depression as they are expected to adjust their perception of age. This occurred when they are making a way through the previous occupational lifestyle as it is challenging to adjust their mentality. However, by re-evaluating their life, individuals usually see the chance of personal growth and are able to maturely encountering these challenges (Rayner, 2005).
According to a research examining the ego development throughout midlife, a significant increase of ego level was shown. In other words, the level of maturity and the ability to make sense of the world will be improved across the midife. Also, Another longitudinal study had proven the growth in psychological aspects (Willis & Reid, 1999, Pals, 2012). According to the Ryff’s model, the central definition of psychological functioning and well-being can be captured in various domains such as positive relations to others and environmental mastery (Willis & Reid, 1999; Springer, Pudrovska, & Hauser, 2011). By Comparing two longitudinal studies conducted in 1999 and 2011, the former research demonstrate growth in psychological functioning and well-being among all aspects of from young to middle adulthood followed by a gradual decrease afterwards. However, the newer research indicated that psychological development only appeared in environmental mastery autonomy and positive relations (Pals, 2012; Willis & Reid, 1999). What we should pay attention is that, whether err...
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...of middle-aged adult, desire to achieve their occupational identity is ubiquitous. Increasingly, as values and interest become more important, middle-aged are devoting their time to criteria other than work and family such as community and leisure roles. These volition act as a motivating force to pursue their occupational identity which appears to enhance well-being (Kielhofner, 2008).
However, these circumstances cannot be generalised as research showing young adults tend to postpone their marriage, some are not having children while some decided not to get married (Weiten, 2013). Individual variations among the population exist which affects the timing and existence of parenthood.
According to the system theory, no system should be demonstrated by examining only the component parts and the total dynamics should be considered. The development of a human being is
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