The goal of this current research is to measure the level of aggression acceptance of sports spectators and competitors at media covered events compared to non-media covered events. Is there a correlation between media coverage of sporting events and the increased level of acceptance of aggression and violence during sporting competitions by spectators and competitors? In this research the independent variable is the media coverage, whereas the dependent variable is the acceptance of aggression by spectators and competitors. The population in this study will be competitors and spectators from a diverse group of sporting competitions including contact, non-contact and collision sports as well as high profile and low profile sport teams.
There are various theories and numerous research conducted on the topics of aggression and violence in sports. Conversely, there has not been a great deal of research on the media’s role in the aggressive behavior we increasing witness in athletes and spectators. This review of the current literature will be divided into two categories: studies conducted on “aggression in sports” and studies conduct...
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... G. W., & Russell, A. M. (1984). Sports Penalties: An Alternative Means of Measuring Aggression. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 12(1), 69–74.
Sullivan, D. b. (1991). Commentary and viewer perception of player hostility: Adding punch to televised sports. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35(4), 487.
Tucker, L. W., & Parks, J. B. (2001). Effects of Gender and Sport Type on Intercollegiate Athletes’ Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Aggressive Behaviors in Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18(4), 403–413.
White, G. F. (1989). Media and Violence: The Case of Professional Football Championship Games. Aggressive Behavior, 15(6), 423–433.
Zani, B., & Kirchler, E. (1991). When Violence Overshadows the Spirit of Sporting Competition: Italian Football Fans and their Clubs. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 1(1), 5–21.
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- Overview of Literature Review A review of spectator aggression research will be examined in this study. Two separate research studies indicated that spectator aggression was swayed by media propaganda. In one study the much heated anticipation of rival teams drew more fan perceived violence than the non-rival teams. In a similar study where fans perceived more violence in scripted play versus unscripted play also highlighted media’s influence. Whereas, “scripted” violence being the violence mostly planned and composed.... [tags: sports, acceptance of aggression]
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Correlation in Media Coverage of Sports and the Acceptance of Violence by Spectators and Competitors
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