Before considering the ...
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... was betrothed to the ruling prince of Massa-Carrara. However, misery engulfed her life. Her fiancé was murdered forcing her to leave the country where she was sold into slave. Along the way she was raped by multiple men and witnessed the gruesome death of her mother. It is no coincidence Voltaire chooses to include the story of the old woman in Candide. As the daughter of Pope Urban X the old woman grew up in the moral teachings of the church. Voltaire mentions her purity as evidence, “The flower I had reserved for the handsome prince of Massa-Carrara was plucked by the pirate captain.” Thus, it was not acts of immoral promiscuity that caused to her to be raped by the captain. The old women just happened to be the victim of the circumstance. Hence, Voltaire attacks the “All is well” philosophy by showing it is not a comprehensive explanation of evil and suffering.
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