African Americans experienced profound uprisings in civil rights which has signified the period of 1865 and 1929 to be one of vast political, social, and economical change. The Civil War ended in 1865 after Abraham Lincoln signs the 13th amendment outlawing enslavement. This became the catalyst to vital changes to African Americans. Despite positive changes there was plenty of challenges in their daily lives. Organizations were formed in order to strengthen the voice of the oppressed so they could gain civil rights. Towards the end of this period in the 1920’s, the Harlem Renaissance pushed African Americans fully into American society.
The 13th amendment was ratified in 1865 beginning the passing of amendments crucial to African American history. After slavery was abolished what followed was the 14th amendment which gave African Americans the right to citizenship in the United States. In 1870, the 15th amendment only further established civil rights by giving African Americans the ability to vote (Jackson, 2009). Most important was the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which further established the rights of African Americans. These were a series of amendments which helped ease the hardships to their daily lives. Despite all of these great changes there was still oppression in the air.
Most African Americans were already living in the North compared to the South. These numbers increased after the end of Reconstruction Era. This was due to the Exodus of 1879 where more than 900 black families living in Mississippi and surrounding areas migrated to Kansas, going to the North and the West (Smith, 2005, p. 57). This migration helped the economic status to African Americans, as now they truly felt the ability to “colonize” as was d...
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...ciety that would inevitably solidify (Hutchison, 2015).
"Civil Rights Chronology." The Leadership Conference. Organization of Civil Rights, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. .
DuBois, W.E. Burghardt, "The Twelfth Census and the Negro Problems." The Southern Workman, v.29, n.5 (May 1900): p.305-309.
Hutchison, George. "Harlem Renaissance | American Literature and Art." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 4 Sept. 2015. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. .
Jackson, Bill. "The Civil Rights Movement." Civil Rights Movement. Social Studies Help Center, 10 July 2009. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. .
Lawyer, Edward. "American Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights Timeline." Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association, 4 July 1994. Web. 12 Oct. 2015. .
Smith, David Lionel. "The Beginning of "The Exodus of 1879"" Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. 2005. Print.
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