When Affirmative Action Was White by Ira Katznelson is a story that narrates racial inequality in America during the 20th century. While the book was published in 2005, it highlights the era from the Depression to post World War II in America. It mainly spotlights the presidencies of Roosevelt and Truman but also talks about Johnson’s as well. Katznelson speaks of many points but the main issues spoken of are the differences between: welfare for blacks and whites, labor laws for black and whites, divisions in the military and the G.I. Bill which gave benefits to veterans. Ira challenges all of these issues and how each race was affected. He shows the obvious differences that every program had. He admits that blacks did prosper due to certain programs but not even close to how whites were able to prosper. Katznelson provides endless statistics and examples of how many programs, specifically the New Deal and the Fair Deal, were not fair and were actually very racially unfair. Many authors have told stories about racial inequalities throughout American history but Ira Katznelson dives deeper than most and backs his tale with endless information.
Welfare and wages for blacks and whites were very different during the time described throughout the book. Minimum wage laws were raised and all races made money if looked at broadly. If looked at in detail, the laws were passed by southern Democrats. These southern Democrats in Congress held most of the power. This obviously made it easier for racially unjust laws to be passed or made it easier to veto laws that would alter the racial segregation. While the Civil Rights Act was being passed and the country and media all celebrated, laws were also being pas...
... middle of paper ...
...ertainly accomplishes that throughout his statistics provided as well as his narratives from blacks such as West Virginia senator Robert Byrd. He also provides convincing evidence of how southern Democrats took hold of racial policies and formed many of the programs during the Jim Crow era. Racism is still an issue in society today but not even remotely close to how harsh it had been in 20th century America. Katznelson’s work can help today’s youth understand what millions of blacks and all minorities were fighting for throughout history. If the object of learning about history is to not repeat the flaws of the past, then Katznelson created a timeless work of literature that will be remembered way beyond the years of his brilliant life. When Affirmative Action Was White will be forever recognized as one of the best books to ever detail racial inequalities in America.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- White Privilege and Affirmative Action Privilege is defined as “a special advantage or authority possessed by a particular person or group” in the Cambridge Dictionary (“privilege”). Globally, white individuals are often granted privileges than minority groups do not receive. While white privilege often goes unnoticed by white individuals, it causes many disadvantages for people of color and affects how they see themselves. Furthermore, Affirmative Action attempts to equal the playing field for minorities but is faced with contention by many white people.... [tags: Black people, Race, White people, Racism]
1551 words (4.4 pages)
- The Focal Point of the Action My impact action was the talk on White Privilege featuring David Esterline hosted by SURJ (Seminarians United for Racial Justice). White Privilege can be defined as white people having certain social benefits because they are white. “Privilege exists when white people have societal standing that comes with certain benefits that are denied to people of color simply because of their race, rather than because of anything they’ve done or failed to do. The main focus of this event was to create awareness of the white privilege that exists in America and to begin to dismantle the system that has been built to up lift white people and oppress people of color.... [tags: Racism, White people, Black people, Race]
1439 words (4.1 pages)
- Many actors throughout the centuries have performed William Shakespeare’s Othello, both on stage and in film. A few famous actors to have played Othello include Richard Burbage, Edmund Kean, Ira Aldridge, Orson Welles, James Earl Jones, and Laurence Fishburne (Arogundade). Othello was described as a Moor by Shakespeare, despite this, Othello was usually performed by white actors that would wear blackface makeup. Not only were women not allowed to perform in theatre, neither were African-Americans.... [tags: actor, william shakespeare, white actors]
1913 words (5.5 pages)
- I'm White, Angry, and Against Affirmative Action Papers are piling up on top of a desk. People are running around trying to meet their deadlines. Assignments are being pushed back to later dates. Phones are being answered, but put on hold for the next available representatives. The president of the firm puts out a notice of hire. The word is spread throughout the business community through the newspaper and the internet. Resumes are received every business day. The board members of the firm review hundreds of resumes that are received daily.... [tags: affirmative action argumentative persuasive]
1265 words (3.6 pages)
- Affirmative action is a policy or action that favors those who tend to be discriminated against. It is seen as positive discrimination by some. Others refer to it as reverse discrimination. Reverse discrimination is when people of a majority are discriminated in favor of a disadvantage group or minority (Schindler, 2015). The idea of affirmative action dates all the way back to post Civil War Reconstruction Era. It gives an advantage to newly freed slaves who lacked skills to get a job and live a fulfilled life ("International Index to Black Periodicals", 2005).... [tags: Affirmative action, Discrimination, Black people]
1734 words (5 pages)
- The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) was formed in 1969. The Official IRA declared a cease-fire in the summer of 1972, and subsequently the term IRA began being used for the organization that developed from the 'Provisional' IRA. Organized into small, tightly knit cells under the leadership of the Army Council the IRA has remained largely unchanged. It is difficult to know the exact number of IRA members because of the political and economic persecution that comes with publicly endorsing the IRA.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
1408 words (4 pages)
- Affirmative Action Affirmative action is a deliberate effort to provide full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas for women, minorities, and individuals belonging to other traditionally disadvantaged groups. As an issue of today's society, affirmative action requires corporations, universities and other organizations to establish programs designed to ensure that all applicants are treated fairly. It also places a burden of proof on the providers of opportunities; to some degree, the providers must be able to demonstrate that their granting of opportunities to white males is not discriminatory.... [tags: Affirmative Action]
1138 words (3.3 pages)
- â€œThe â€˜under representationâ€™ of any racial group, it was decided, was evidence of discriminationâ€?(Guernsey). Affirmative action did not start out as a reverse discrimination towards white males, but it was meant to help everybody, but failed nearly completely after a time of which it was affected. The original concept of affirmative action excluded any mention of preference. â€œLaunched during the late 1960s by the administration of President Richard M. Nixon, affirmative action programs call for guidelines and goals in the hiring of racial and ethnic minorities, the handicapped, and women.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1662 words (4.7 pages)
- Affirmative Action is the name given to programs that try to correct past and ongoing discriminations against women, racial minorities, and others in the work force and in education. The principal goal of Affirmative Action is to create more diversity and equal opportunities in jobs or schools that used to be all or mostly male, white, or both. Affirmative Action programs have been in place only a little over thirty years. Affirmative action works. There are thousands of examples of situations where people of color, and white women who were previously excluded from jobs or educational opportunities, or were denied opportunities once admitted, have gained access through affirmative action.... [tags: Affirmative Action Essays]
1091 words (3.1 pages)
- Though Affirmative Action is a current controversial issue, it is far from new; its decree has been long in the making. Perhaps it originates from amendments 13-15, the series of amendments that outlawed slavery, guaranteed equal protection under the law, and forbid racial discrimination when voting, respectively (Sykes 1). The Supreme Court’s decision in 1896, in the case of Plessy V. Ferguson, mandated separate but equal treatment for African Americans (Sykes 1). However, in 1954, the Supreme Court’s decision from Brown v.... [tags: Government Affirmative Action Essays]
3550 words (10.1 pages)
- Space Exploration : The Space Program
- Why The Vietnamese Have A Superstition That Changed The Middle Of A Picture
- The Issue Of The American North And South There Has Been Animosity
- Women And Adults Have Received Healthy Living Education From The Kanawha County 4
- The Fall Of The Royal Academy During The French Revolution
- Play, Essential And Physical, Social, And Emotional Well Being Of Children And Youth