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...t literary work, which would become an integral book in Roman education, was immensely pro-Augustus, and the Aeneid worked in the emperor’s favor as a medium for his cultural, social, and political agenda. The incorporation of historic enemies, such as Carthage, traditional values, such as pater familias, religiosity, from Apollo to Jupiter, and duty, from founding cities to maintaining an empire, worked harmoniously to create a picture of stability and prosperity under Augustus. He was quite literally a promised leader, as depicted on a shield crafted by a god illustrating Rome’s future, and such passages, even if used to relate past and present events, served as propaganda. Virgil’s epic epitomized the restored cultural identity Augustus pursued through social and legislative means, and worked successfully to instill a sense of nationalism in his imperial subjects.
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