GSM Transmitter Measurement for Base Transceiver Station and their Components
Measurements was performed on active components of GSM BTS and their components by . It explained that GSM standards define radio communications systems that work properly only if each component part operates within precise limits. Base stations must transmit enough power, with sufficient fidelity to maintain a call of acceptable quality, without transmitting excessive power into the frequency and timeslot allocated to others.
Some factors responsible for interference were identified such as: spectrum due to modulation and wideband noise, spectrum due to switching, and transmitter and receiver band spurious. The need to watch out for BTS receiver sensitivity was also highlighted .
Overview of Latest Development of Standard in Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields
Electromagnetic radiations are produced by GSM base station antennas, the allowable levels of radiations are regulated by a country’s communications commission following the guidelines and standards produced by standard setting organisation such as; International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)...
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...radio equipment, switches, antennas, transceivers for signal processing-both BTS and Gateways, fibre optic network and backbone, transmission and all other electronic systems and components of the mobile network.
Passive infrastructure that comprises the non-electronic infrastructure including though not limited to towers, shelters, air conditioning equipment, generator set, battery banks, electrical supply, technical premises, and Rest Room and pylons, which account for nearly 60 percent of network roll out cost . See Table 2.1 below for the categorization.
Table 2.1: Mobile Infrastructure Components 
Active Components Passive Components
1. Base Station 1. Tower
2. Microwave Radio Equipment 2. Shelters
3. Switches 3. Electric Supply
4. Antennas 4. Rest Room
5. Transceivers 5. Ducts
6. Fibre Optic network 6. Cable Right of Way
Passive Infrastructure Sharing
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