In 2013, an estimated number of around 35 million people worldwide were affected with HIV/AIDS. Of these, 3.2 million were children aged 15 or below. Most of these children were from sub-Saharan Africa, and were found to be infected by their HIV-positive mothers during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Currently, there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, however a treatment using variety of drugs can be combined and used to control the virus. This is known as antiretroviral therapy and its goal is to reduce the amount of virus in the blood to a level that is undetectable, however this does not mean that the HIV virus is completely gone, it is still present in the blood but at low levels and can still be transmitted to other people.
HIV is commonly found in body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk and vaginal and anal fluids of an infected person. Therefore a person is most likely to risk infection via sexual contact, contaminated blood transfusions, using infected needles or from a mother to child during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Although HIV can also be found in other fluids, for instance, saliva and urine, the quantities are tiny and therefore is not enough to cause an infection.
Though the HIV virus infects variety of cells, AIDS results from specifically targeting CD4 receptors on the surfaces of T-Helper lymphocyte cells, a key component of the human immune system. They do this in order to gain entry into host T-cells and use the cells’ replication machinery to replicate its own DNA as the HIV virus does not...
... middle of paper ...
...20% and 35% at 18 and 12 months of protease inhibitor-containing therapy in antiretroviral-naïve adults, this suggests that there may be other cofounding factors (Carr, 2003). Other factors, such as the duration of HIV infection, age and gender may contribute to the risk of development of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients.
As mentioned previously, protease inhibitors used to treat HIV infected patients may be one of the causes for lipodystrophy. This is because the protein inhibitors suppresses the transcription receptors that are a key part of adipogenesis, a process by which preadipocytes differentiate to adipocytes. The suppression of adipogenesis decreases the production of adipose tissue, therefore causing lipodystrophy. In addition, lipogenesis is also supressed, meaning fatty acids cannot be converted to triglycerides and stored as fat (Ali et al., 2013).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a blood born disease that was first recognized in America in the early 1980’s, around the time Rock Hudson passed away. It is believed that it was first passed thru to humans by monkey’s in Africa. “The battle between humans and disease was nowhere more bitterly fought than here in the fetid equatorial climate, where heat and humidity fuel the generation of new life forms. One historian has suggested that humans, who first evolved in Africa eons ago migrated north to Asia and Europe simple to get to climates that were less hospitable to the deadly microbes the tropics so efficiently spread.” (Shilts, 5) “HIV may already infect one to tw... [tags: AIDS disease]
1459 words (4.2 pages)
- AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. It is the fifth leading cause of death among persons between ages 25 and 44 in the United States. When HIV/AIDS first surfaced in the United States, it mainly affected men who had sex with men. However, now it 's clear that HIV is also spread through heterosexual sex. Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected, but you 're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you have unprotected sex, have another sexually transmitted infection, use intravenous drugs by sharing needles or syringes, or even having sex with a man who is uncircumcised... [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Semen]
810 words (2.3 pages)
- ... (“What is HIV/AIDS?”) It was only after the discovery of the AIDS virus, that HIV (Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus) was discovered. (“Where did HIV Come From?”) The first case found in humans was in 1959 by a blood sample of a man who lived in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, however how he became infected is unknown. (“Where did HIV Come From?”) Now, the general theory about HIV is that it comes form the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) because HIV-1 and HIV-2 are very similar to certain strains of SIV.... [tags: AIDS, Immune system, HIV, Immunodeficiency]
1356 words (3.9 pages)
- AIDS is the acronym used for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is a disease transmitted through the blood. It is transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, I.V. drug users, and from mothers to babies during birth. AIDS is a disease which breaks down the human immune system causing the body to become very susceptible to infection. The disease is brought about by the HIV-1 virus. HIV-1( Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can remain dormant for years and then begins to attack the bodies T- cells and white cells which help fight off infection.... [tags: AIDS Essays]
1596 words (4.6 pages)
- AIDS: Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome I am doing a report on AIDS, I don't know much about AIDS but I will tell you what I know. I know that it is transmitted by sexual contact,blood,needles,children during/before birth. I also know it affects the immune system directly, It is caused by the virus HIV which they have no cure for either AIDS or HIV at the current moment, but they are doing serious research on them. I call it the "Generation X Disease" because it mostly affects my sex- oriented generation.... [tags: essays research papers]
683 words (2 pages)
- For an epidemic that would explode to claim hundreds of thousands of lives, AIDS surfaced very quietly in the United States, with a small notice on June 4, 1981 in a weekly newsletter published by the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, alerting doctors to five unusual cases of pneumonia that had been diagnosed in Los Angeles residents over the previous few months. All the patients were homosexual men who had come down with PCP (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia), a lung infection usually seen only severely malnourished children or adults undergoing intensive chemotherapy.... [tags: AIDS Essays]
1241 words (3.5 pages)
- HIV and Aids affect more than roughly thirty million people worldwide. Race, sex and age have nothing to do with who can get this disease, however, the race with the highest number of infected people happens to be Caucasian males ages 25-44. About forty-five percent of the 641,000 AIDS cases in the U.S. have been white people. Blacks aren’t far behind with over 35 percent of cases, and Hispanics have about 20 percent of all cases. Asians have less than anyone does, with 1 percent. Of the estimated 30.6 million people worldwide living with this horrible, life-threatening disease in 1997, about 68 percent were living in sub-Saharan Africa.... [tags: AIDS Essays]
484 words (1.4 pages)
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, also known as AIDS, is mainly caused by Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is one stage in the course of HIV disease, which must be diagnosed by a physician. According to World Health Organization (WHO), HIV damages the body’s immune system by destroying the white blood cells which help us to conquer pathogens. When HIV enters the white blood cell, it may remain inert. It infects another cell to produce many new HIV’s once it’s activated. This decreases the body’s ability to fight infection and suppress multiplication of abnormal cells, such as cancer.... [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Blood]
1929 words (5.5 pages)
- “Deficient” is an immune system that cannot protect you from viruses, the flu, diseases, and the common cold. You cannot tell when someone is terminally ill, just like you cannot tell when someone is truly happy. When people lack the knowledge about AIDS and HIV, they seem to be ignorant about the situation other people are in. HIV and AIDS are not contagious, nor can you get it from hugging, holding hands, or kissing someone. Many people who are infected by this virus do not know they are HIV positive.... [tags: african americans, HIV, AIDS, sexual activity]
1450 words (4.1 pages)
- ... The issue of greed has plagued human beings since the beginning of time. In more current times greed has developed within professional sports and continues to thrive as young adolescents are exploited by community colleges, universities, and professional leagues by having them perform proficiently in the sport even at the cost of the players health. On the other hand some athletes take part in similar actions and ignore their own health and wellbeing for their own personal gain whether it be fame or money.... [tags: Ethics, Human, Person, AIDS]
1006 words (2.9 pages)
- Police Ride Along With The Fairfax County Police Department
- The Medieval Male Feminist : Chaucer 's The Canterbury Tales
- Beliefs And Perspectives Of Shakespeare 's Antigone And Oedipus
- Nuclear Technology And Nuclear Weapons
- The American Therapeutic Recreation Association 's Code Of Ethics
- The Difference Between Legislation, Policies, Procedures And Guidelines