Acid And Benzoic Acid Essay

Acid And Benzoic Acid Essay

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In this experiment, the goal is to separate naphthalene and benzoic acid from one gram of a crude mixture containing them both, using extraction. A general requirement of a solvent in extraction is solvating one of the pure compounds in solution but not the other. Position in the separatory funnel is determined by density of each layer. The denser layer will be on the bottom of the separatory funnel while the less dense layer will be the top layer of the separatory funnel. For extraction to be used as an effective method for separation, the components of a mixture that need to be recovered must not be soluble in the same solvent. Benzoic acid is not soluble in water, but is soluble in diethyl ether. In benzoic acid, the benzene ring is nonpolar so it is insoluble in water, as water is polar. But, it is soluble in nonpolar diethyl ether. Benzoate, the conjugate base of Benzoic acid, is soluble in water and insoluble in diethyl ether. Benzoate is polar, so it isn’t soluble in nonpolar diethyl ether and it is soluble in polar water. Naphthalene is never soluble in water, regardless of solution pH. Naphthalene’s pKa is very high, making extraction essentially impossible. So, naphthalene cannot be readily ionized in aqueous solution. Once the two layers are separated in the separatory funnel, testing to find the aqueous layer should happen by acquiring a little bit of the top layer and putting this sample in water. If it dissolves, it is the aqueous layer. After determining, which layer is aqueous and which is organic separate the two layers into two separate Erlenmeyer flasks. To get the desired compound, naphthalene, from the organic layer, add micro scoops of sodium sulfate, Na2SO4, until all water is separated. It will be obvious b...

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...d. But as far as comparing the observed Mel-temp melting points to the actual melting points, there was a big difference between the values observed and the real melting point values. The Mel-temp temperatures for benzoic acid and naphthalene were 85-95 °C and 55-62 °C, respectively. The actual values of temperature for benzoic acid and naphthalene were122.4°C and 80.2°C, respectively. This showed that the “pure” samples were still impure in some way. It seemed as though maybe not enough vacuum filtration and drying time were causations of impure samples, probably tainted by water. The crude sample Mel-temp temperature was 55-63 °C. This showed that the naphthalene sample was very off from it’s actual value, probably still very crude, while the benzoic acid melting temperature was above the crude sample melting temperate, but still very below what it should have been.

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