A University of Nevada research mentions the principal causes of aridity: the formation of desert in particular latitudes is the primary due to complex global air-circulation patterns caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis, this is called atmospheric high pressure, also the distance from the oceans could be a cause of it, “Areas lying deep within a continent may become desert simply because air currents reaching them have already traversed vast land distances; by the time they arrive over the deserts, these currents have already lost the moisture they once carried.” as is explained by the university. According to FAO “aridity is usually expressed as a function of rainfall and temperature, represented by the following climatic aridity index: p/ETP. Where p is the precipitation, ETP is the potential of evapotranspiration”. Also FAO (n.d) explain that with the data taken from the above equation, there are three different types of arid ground: Semi-arid (0.20-0.50), arid (0.05-0.20) and hyper-arid (<0.05). The figure 1 shows the distribution of non-polar arid land, showing that as many hyper-arid areas, arid or semi-arid, found in North Africa, Asia and Australia. This report will analyse and compare possible technics to provided fresh water to arid regions of the world.
(Figure 1, Distribution of non-polar arid land)
One of the most useful techniques today is the desalination of the seawater. Perlman (2015) mentions that many civilizations used this process on their ships to convert sea water into drinking water, nowadays desalination plants are used to convert sea water into drinking water not only in ships but also in many arid regions of the world, he also mentions that desalinatio...
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...ory is arid or semi-arid land, it is feasible have any of the two techniques, however if it is for a domestic and family use is more recommend solar distillation, but if what is sought is to do it more for industry, although it is more expensive, membrane filtration is a better choice.
In this report, two techniques for water purification are compared, the first Solar distillation is the most recommended for domestic use and small percentage of the population because it is not very expensive and has a fairly simple operation, instead membrane filtration though more costly and complex can be used in a more industrially. These two techniques can be used to provide water in arid regions of the world and helped to reduce problems caused by the lack of this liquid, it is only necessary to have the resources to implement these techniques in these areas.
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