From that, psychology evolved into a science of the self which James (1890) viewed as a fundamental concept in psychology. James made the distinction between the objective self (me) and the subjective self (I). Poll and Smith (2003) remarked that psychodynamic theories place more emphasis on the objective self unlike James.
The psychodynamic school was founded by Sigmund Freud and tries to explain individual’s personality and behaviour in terms of underlying conscious and unconscious forces. Thus, a strong emphasis is placed on the unconscious and childhood experiences as these are thought to help shape personality.
Psychoanalytic Theory (S. Freud, 1900)
The best-known psychodynamic theory of personality is S. Freud’s (1900) psychoanalytic theory which can be seen as a response to James’ (1890) radical empiricism.
S. Freud initially believed there were three unconscious motives responsible for all human behaviour; sex, aggression, and anxiety reduction. Sex was the most important motive. However, in 1927, sex was changed to Eros (the life motive), aggression to Thanatos (the death motive) and anxiety reduction was deemphasised.
S. Freud (1927) developed a personality structure present in all humans consisting of the id, ego and superego. The id is an unconscious entity present from birth. Both the Eros and Thanatos motives reside in the id. As it only relates to the other personality entities, not the environment, it is the leas...
... middle of paper ...
...n, rather than the sexual and aggressive interaction between the child and parent.
However, a criticism of all the theories is their lack of empirical evidence. Adler (1927) and Horney (1937) have no single agreed upon measure of their styles of life and ten neurotic needs, whereas Jung’s (1912) measure of the MBTI (Myers, 1962) lacks any empirical evidence.
Overall, I think each theory has value within the psychodynamic school of psychology as they each presented their own unique concepts such as S. Freud’s (1900) personality structure, Jung’s (1912) concept of introversion and extraversion, Adler’s (1927) four personality types and Horney’s (1937) ten neurotic needs characterised by three modes. However, I believe that S. Freud’s (1900) psychoanalytic theory had the most influence and greatest contribution to the psychodynamic school and to psychology as a whole.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Philosophy (or mission) statements are used to guide individual, team, and corporate behavior and decisions, and to convey the organization’s culture (Ask the manager, 1995). In May of 2001, Dell Computer Corporation was experiencing decreasing PC Margins, frequent layoffs, and a lack of motivation from their employees. This resulted in a meeting between Michael Dell, the founder and CEO of Dell Computer Corporation, and Kevin Rollins, the President and COO of Dell Computer Corporation. Dell and Rollins determined that Dell needed to “find their soul,” by articulating the basic values and beliefs of the company, and creating a set of guidelines for employees became a top priority.... [tags: Business]
1265 words (3.6 pages)
- ... She cannot marry both but the fate makes a miracle for her. Initially she feels to be triumphant for her wish but later on she gets the right impression about the nature that humans are mere puppets to act to the tunes of the nature. Devadutta is an attractive Brahmin youth with a beauty of the mind. He falls in love with an unrivaled and witty girl named Padmini. Being a song of an ironsmith, Kapila has wonderful physique. Devaadutta and Kapila are close friends like two bodies and one soul.... [tags: context, power, desires, repentence]
639 words (1.8 pages)
- Everyone will die, but not everyone will live, we as humans tend to fear death simply because it’s the unknown. Some people dedicated their whole life to believing one such as religion, where as others simply avoid the discussion out of fear. But in Socrates and Chuang Tzu case they discuses it all the time, they study the conception of the body and soul. This essay will focus on the idea of afterlife including both views of the philosophers and focus on the theories, which are significantly more comforting to those awaiting death.... [tags: Soul, Life, Reincarnation, Death]
1356 words (3.9 pages)
- Plato taught his contemporaries of the idea of the soul and how it has a desire and goal to become a pure. To do this Plato stressed that every human being must compare him or herself to the most high, Godly truth. To accomplish this, humans were expected to live by the universal example by struggling with bodily temptations and sins to be able to keep the soul pure. Plato’s thoughts became the forerunner and basis for many religions in his time and overall applied to all humans as a code of how to live.... [tags: Plato, Soul, Democracy, Republic]
979 words (2.8 pages)
- The Unknown Psychology is the study of the mind, soul, mental processes and behaviors in a human being. The mental processes included internal and the covert activity in our minds. The studies of these everyday processes have made human beings into what they are today. If humans did not know how the mind worked everyone would be completely confused on how things happen in the mind. The mind is one of the most difficult body parts to study because it has many processes going on at once that people cannot control.... [tags: Psychology, Thought, Mind, Cognitive science]
1021 words (2.9 pages)
- ... In Vedas the practice of personal hygiene has been stressed in daily prayers. Childhood is the best time for anyone to learn hygiene behavior and same to be applied in the rest of their life. Personal hygiene involves taking regular bath, washing the hands ( whenever necessary), cutting the nails, washing clothing, washing the hair, brushing the teeth and caring gums.(2) The personal hygiene habit can be taught in a fun way. Making up of games to see if child can remember what steps are needed to accomplish a specific hygiene goal.... [tags: hygiene, bathing, infestation]
543 words (1.6 pages)
- Introduction Are you one of those people of the "old school". The kind who still uses a street directory. Who still loves to receive an actual letter in the mail. Do you, like me, have a million notebooks and journals from sermons and seasons long ago stuffed away in your junk room but just can 't bear to throw them out. Ok, so I 've ditched the street directory in favour of Google maps, but perhaps the reason I can 't throw out those old journals is that they are the story of my life. Adele Ahlberg Colhoun notes, "the ongoing nature of a journal catalogues the journey of a soul into God." Just like a map, I can look back and travel through a flick of the pages my journey thus far.... [tags: Holy Spirit, Christianity]
1256 words (3.6 pages)
- Meditation Is meditation beneficial for the soul. Meditation is the practice in which a human being trains the mind or induces a mode of consciousness, either to realize some benefit or as an end in itself. Many people ponder upon this practice, therefore are passive and do not take neither the time nor effort into the practice of meditation because of the thought inside saying “is it worth it?” To answer this: yes, meditating does take time, but the benefits that are acquired throughout the practice exceed all the negative contemplations that go through the mind before beginning.... [tags: re-condition our conscious awareness]
693 words (2 pages)
- There are many evil people in this world. They are evil because that is how we view them. The country that is being attacked by a terrorist views the terrorist as evil, whereas the country that the terrorist is from views the terrorist as a hero. There are few people that are truly evil. To be truly evil everyone must agree that the person is evil. In the novel, The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Roger Chillingworth is truly evil. Hester is the only person who knows that Chillingworth is evil, taking into account of the things he is doing to her.... [tags: Classic American Literature]
1237 words (3.5 pages)
- In his only extant work, the poem De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things), Epicurean author Titus Lucretius Carus writes of the soul as being inseparable from the corporeal body. This view, although controversial in its opposition to the traditional concept of a discrete, immortal soul, is nevertheless more than a mere novelty. The argument that Lucretius makes for the soul being an emergent property of interactions between physical particles is in fact more compelling and well-supported now than Lucretius himself would have ever imagined.... [tags: Philosophy]
1210 words (3.5 pages)