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Jews have a long history in a world which is being considered one of the ancient holy religions in the world. However, Jews became one of most people who suffer from discrimination and hate among other religious. Many Jews lose their identity and cultural because of the lock of the Jewish nationalism. On the other hand, Palestine is an consider to be very valuable in a religious aspect to Arabs Muslims. The Jew is believed that by creating a state for Jews could solve their problem and unite them under one nationalism and identity that the main ideology of Zionism movement and to establish a new state to Jewish. Therefore, The establishment of Jewish problem state has helped to solve Jews problems that they have suffered from losing identity as Haam believed and unified Jews under on the state which is Isere’s.However, creating Jews state has a high disadvantage in the Arabs region because of a merge conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Middle East region especially in Palestine. In this research paper will focusing on the problem that emerge by establishing Isere’s state and how that impact of Palestine refugee problem and their right to return.
Define of the Jewish problem:
In general prospective Jewish problem is considered to rebuild their identity and nationalism as Leo Pinsker who is a Jewish intellectual in Russia. He believes that Jews will not expect in European as part of them.Therefore, Jewish only option for freedom of the high movement against being by creating their Jewish homeland with only Jews citizen and excluded the other ethnic group (Pinsker 1882). This” Jewish problem” can define as Leo Pinsker that Jews need their own state to protect them from another state whom discrimination and hated to throw them. According to Pinsker that Judeophobia is a term that develop to become anti-Semitism that express hater against Jewish people that lead to many of state government declare war massacres in Jewish history for instance genocide of Spanish Jews in 139 (Pinsker 1882).
Jewish problem defines as Ahad Ha'am, who consider to be an early thinker of Zionist and founder of cultural Zionism which mean is that Jew identity considers being by languages and historical heritages. Moreover , Ha'am his own theory of so-called "cultural Zionism", which aims to send or update Jewish culture traditional so it can co-exist with the modern era, and could be accomplished within the framework of the national centralization .
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Ha'am believed that the Jewish problem is the establishment of the Jewish Center headquarters in Palestine would not solve the problems of Jewish in material and economical aspect that Jews in Eastern Europe suffer from it, and would not be a refuge for Jews from persecution to which they are exposed to in some countries. However, that would be a Jewish centre spiritually perfect positive impact on Jewish communities throughout the world and to other nations. He believed also that to set up the main Jewish centre in Palestine is seeking to make it an ideal spiritual centre for Jew is not to make it as a political entity. Nonetheless, Ha'am thinks that by creating state in Palestine will raise conflict between Arabs and Ottomans Empire. He suggests that by reviving of Hebrew language and created new cultural that will help to unite all Jewish people under one common denominator between different Jews community. Also, his concept of creating state of Israel in Palestine should be not by the political method but require spiritual rebirth and focusing in cultural to unify the Jews ideology.
In return to history Jews ideology of Zionism rise by journalist Theodeor Herzl in his book Dre Judendtaat in put base of Zionist ideology The Theodore Herzl, the founder of the international Zionism as a political movement colonial advocated solving what they called the Jewish problem, and opposed the merger of the Jews in their home country residents, and led them to immigrate to Palestine, claiming that they have the rights to historical and religious, and converged ambitions of Zionism through Herzl goals of colonialism in the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
Herzl has identified the goals of the Zionist movement at the time as "the achievement of a link Jews around the world and where the air and bonds of nationalism and emphasis on historic Palestine to become a national homeland for the Jews wherever they are." He believed that the Jew problem will not solve until Jew gather in one unified state under the role of Jewish nationalism and identity, so by creating Israel state help them to solve their problem which was considered to be under long time of humiliation and discrimination from other nations.
Dre Judendtaat is a book written by Herzl's which was rejected idea of the melting of the Jews in the cultures of countries in which they live . It’s called on Jews to unite their efforts and build a state of their own has been seen that the perfect place for the realization of this project is the land of Palestine, because of the links Home for the Jews in that land. According to the claim to achieve grab Palestine, suggested Herzl formation of a Jewish company the responsibility to grab the land of Palestine, and the objective of the formation of this company is to finance the purchase of the Palestinian territories and overseas. The cultivation and development of those lands that the company is also to clarify the advantages of the Zionist strategy to the leaders of European countries to get their blessing and support it the necessary funds of project Zionist Jews will come from wealthy assimilated in other societies and who do not wish to immigrate to Palestine.
Herzl suggested that most immigrants to Palestine mostly be from the Jews who is poor who are not afraid of something they have lost as a result of their migration, and that the role of these early settlers is the cultivation of the land and create a climate tempt others from other classes of introspection in Palestine. (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2013).
Background of creating Isere’s state and Brittan Mandate:
The Jewish problem is an important case not only Palestine but including Jewish; they occupied Palestine land and force them to leave their land because Jewish was able to do that with the help of Brittan at that time to create Israelis state. British has the important role of creating Israel because of Balfour Declaration British protections believe that by backing the Zionist movement could bring support of Jewish people in both Russia and Unite State for proposing of war. However, the Arab was against the declaration.
The Balfour Declaration, the term fired on the message sent by Arthur James Balfour to Lord Lionel Rothschild, referring to the British government's support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. England has adopted the Zionist ideology since the beginning of the twentieth century the policy of creating a Jewish political entity in Palestine, subject to their influence and takes care of them and will be in the future. Britain is supporting the idea of creating state in Palestine. As result of that , British Mandate in Palestine was the golden stage of settlement of the Zionist in Palestine. Where Britain entered Palestine is committed to the Balfour Declaration to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Thus became the Jewish settlement is under the control of a superpower worked to support and strengthen. If the settlement in its early stages may characterized as random, and the trend towards the face of the problems that are related to Jews outside Palestine, it is at this stage underwent political considerations and strategy since its inception. Where held a number of settlements in strategic areas, and was in the form of gated communities resembling “the ghetto " based on labor policy Hebrew to establish itself and the problem the nucleus of the Zionist presence in Palestine. "
There is no doubt that the authorities of the British Mandate has facilitated . Various means the process of transferring ownership of Palestinian land to Zionist organizations. In order to settle them, that they have been awarded the Jewish Agency, the territory of the government and a wide area of 195 thousand acres. In different parts of the country, including lands of the coastal plain of the Palestinian. The governments of the British Mandate in 1921, (175) thousand acres of government property at the disposal of Zionist organizations in order to establish settlements them to resettle immigrants, which in turn led to the revolution of 1921 which severely suppressed by British forces, where they joined the English settlers as well as in the suppression of the revolution. (Rodman, D. 2010).
Jews announced that the State of Israel in 1948 to 77% of the area of historic Palestine. Israel was able to expel most of the Palestinian population after that committed numerous massacres and the destruction of Palestinian villages and towns. The Palestinians are living homeless refugees in neighbouring Arab countries in miserable camps, despite the issuance of several international resolutions eliminate. The need to return to their land, and in return opened the doors of Jewish immigration wide to pour a lot of Jews from around the world.This continues until the war's fifth of June 1967, which was one of the most important results of the completion of Israel's control of Palestinian territory. After the occupation of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip.Thus the new window of opportunity for Israel to follow the Zionist plans. In 1947 between Arabs and Jews both sides were against of establishing Israel state. As a result of that many conflict arose between them and bring many tragedies and misery to Palestine citizen and Jewish.
In fact, Jews minority who used live in the Middle East has lived in peace and harmony with the Arabs. But since the declaration of divided Palestine between Arabs and Jews, Many of Arabs states who exile Jews from their countries such as Egypt and Yemen.For example when a decision the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1947 the partition of Palestine into two states (Arab and Jewish) and the development of Jerusalem and its environs under international administration. This has led to the eruption of unrest among Arab citizens unarmed and untrained military and between the Zionist Army, trained, and armed with resources, and internal and external support. The war ended unequal to kill or displace the Arabs, and the takeover of the Zionist army of Arab territories. (Yitzak Shamir, 1928)
The Palestine refugee problem:
To begin with the Israeli state created problem many of the Palestine citizen by leaded them to immigrate to other state runway for war because of violent and exiles from their own country. According to Abba Eban, the Refugee Problems is case of Arabs state to launch a war between Arab and Israelis in 1947-8 (Eban 1958). The Eban believes that if Arab countries didn’t waging war with Israel, they had not wasted money, blood and lives in that war therefore were not any of the Palestinian refugee problems.
In fact, Palestine refugee problem is an important case for Arabs nations however question emerges in surface how can Arab decisions enter war with Israel impact of refugee problem? To answer this question is by return to history in British mandate, when the Israel state announces independence on May 14, 1948, the Arab was angered with this declaration as a result of that Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt with the support of both Yemen and Saudi Arabia unite forces and enter the war with Israel’s states, which lead to many of Palestine to seek for safety in other states. The rise of conflict between two parties results to increased number of exodus Palestine citizens.
The Arab state such as Egypt and Saudi Arabia was against the plan on Assembly of November 1947 therefore Arab had been storing up inside and outside Palestine inhibit any threat against Palestine territory. The Unite Nation was trying to put Israel in Middle East region which result of many of leader forcibly deny rights of Jews to have stated in Middle East specially that Palestine hold great religious vale to Muslims Arab .
To Eban support the idea that Arab should take responsibility for the Palestinian refugee problem .However, Arabs government takes itself out of the problem and take any responsibility at Palestine victims who suffer from that problem morally and materially. The question that arises here as Eaban is indicates “How can government create a vest humanitarian problem with their action – then wash their hands full responsibility for its alleviation?”( Albania 1958) , in this case Arab had responded that main factor who case the Problem is Unite Nation, when decide to divide Palestine between Arabs and Jew that created more problems to the Middle East region than before.
Eban argument is to Arab government should put a solution for a refugee problem in the Middle East. First of all, Arab nation in recent year has been rising in economic aspect in the Middle East that can help Arabs nation to develop, this advantage of increasing of economic and revenues can help refugee to create a new life and support them by letting them take jobs in government companies or private sector. Secondly, Rostow recommendation in May 21, 1966 that regard Palestine refugee problem is by allowing the Palestine refugee to return back to Israel, in two conditions one of these conditions is annual quotes and second security screening. In addition Israelis must restitution Palestine by giving them a new place to stay and new houses, The Rostow solution was supported Arab ideology of Palestinian rights to return.
The Palestine right to return:
Palestine right to return can be defined as a principle or concept gives the Palestinian right to return back to their homeland. In additions, The right of return is the rights of the Palestinian who expulsion or kick out from their home for any reason at 1948, to return to their homes or land or the house in which they used lived as normal life, and this right applies to all Palestinians, whether man or woman, and also applies to any offspring of them regardless of their number and their locations and place of birth and circumstances of political, social and economic.
Israel’s state is obligated that to bring or combustion all property that they lose when they force to excel form Isere’s during Six day war between Israel and Arab nation such as Egypt, Jordan and by the support both Saudi Arabia and Yemen . I Israel occupied the rest of the territory of Palestine - Jerusalem and the West Bank and the Gaza Strip - in the war of June 1967 (Six Day War). The number of Palestinians was who was expelled from the West Bank after the 1967 war, about 410 thousand Palestinians. They called them as “displaced”." Thus became the Palestinian refugee is abandoned in 1948 and displaced Palestinian is abandoned in 1967, After practicing various international pressures on Israel agreed to allow a small number of Palestine refugee to return. The 176 thousand displaced people from filling out applications prepared by the International Red Cross. Israel did not allow the return but of only 14 thousand of them. Thus became the status of these displaced people who have been deprived of the right of return similar to the situation of refugees from the top of the Palestinian people, despite the different label. In Six day war Palestine citizen lose their home as a result of that Israel by the UN General Assembly give the Palestinians the right to return under UN resolution 194 and to give them back their home.
Nonetheless, Palestine refugees hope to return back to their homeland and claim their rights to return .Therefore, Isere’s state should be compensated in their property, these rights are protected under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 10th of December in 1948 in article 13 which stated "[e] everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country." (Declaration of Human Rights 1948) this right show that a Palestinian has right to return and to compensation of all their property The return of refugees is only his return to the same place, who was expelled from or discharged for any reason, their parents or predecessors, it was stipulated that the explanatory note to Resolution 194 on it clearly, Without it remains refugee is under international law to return to them to their home be themselves.
The Jewish problem is solved because of creating a Jews state in Plaestine. As Leo Pinscher indicates that Jews problem is consider being the hater and discrimination against Jews from another nation. While Ahaad Hamm sees the Jews problem is that Jewish people lose their culture and Hebrew languages and those problem lads to lose the Jew nationalism. Meanwhile, Herzal that founder of the Zionist movement believed that Jews has religious and historical right in Plaestine.
The Belfour declaration of divided Plaestine between Arabs and Jews create alot of hassle between them. As result of that, Palestine people has suffer from it very badly, that led to create a new problem which is Palestinian refugees. According to Ebban Arabs was mainly reason of Palestine refugees problem because of the enter war with Jews. In addition, the Palestine citizen has right to return to their land but the Jews are against that idea and reject their right to return.