A Short Note On Insomnia, Primary And Secondary Insomnia Essay

A Short Note On Insomnia, Primary And Secondary Insomnia Essay

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1. Detailed description of the disease:
DIMS stands for Difficulty Initiating or Maintaining Sleep and is the medical term for insomnia. There are two
main categories of insomnia, primary and secondary insomnia. Primary is considered idiopathic insomnia since there is
no obvious potential causes while secondary insomnia is caused by other causative factors, conditions and/or disease(s)
making it a symptom or a side effect. DIMS’s has been considered a disorder since 2005 whereas before it was simply
considered a symptom. The classic symptom for insomnia is difficulty falling and/or remaining asleep where the severity
in sleep disturbances can vary from mild to severe. Other signs and symptoms include waking up frequently, or sleep for
a short duration of time, have sleepless nights, non-restorative sleep and/or waking up very early without being able to
go back to sleep followed by day time fatigue. Mood disturbances will often follow.
Although it is still considered unclear experts suspect that insomniacs suffer from neuroendocrine dysfunction.
Scientific evidence is supporting the following theory; “…maybe the problem with some insomniacs is not insufficient
sleepiness, but too much arousal.”[1] There can be a hormonal component involved with the hypothalamic-pitutiaryadrenal-gonadotropic
axis (HPA axis). It’s been observed that hyperarousal of HPA axis is commonly present with
primary insomniacs. This hyperactivity in the HPA axis can stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Creating a
cascading effect; the pituitary will release adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH). The adrenals respond by excreting high
levels of cortisol. Some believe that the hormone process involved in the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of

... middle of paper ...

...ty with
age.”[6] It is also common for multiple co-morbidities to occur with secondary insomnia such as GERD, neurological
problems, heart failure, renal disease, chronic pain, diabetes, brain injury and/or psychiatric disorders which are
extremely common with secondary insomniac. Prescription medication and recreational substances can mimic or
counteract neurotransmitters. Medications that interfere with sleep patterns include, blood pressure medication,
thyroid preparations and/or corticosteroids just to name a few. Caffeine block adenosine’s effect which is responsible
for making you feels sleepy. Nicotine can disrupt sleep as can withdrawals from quitting. “Illegal drugs disrupt sleep,
too. They often have powerful effects on the nervous system, which is part of why people use them, but the short-term
pleasure sometimes comes with longer-run sleep disruption.” [6]

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