Heavy metal toxicity carries an infamous reputation as a mutagenic agent. Its interactions at key points of development and differentiation give a multi-faceted profile as a carcinogen. As a result, some forms of cancer may experience higher prevalence or incidence among individuals suffering various forms of Pb exposure. One such example is encompassed by the breast cancer rates among Nigerian women. Breast Cancer deaths among Nigerian women has become one of the leading cause of cancer-related mortality as the rate of incidence is on an alarming rise. To address this increase, common metal pollutants such as Pb, Cd, and Zn have been under close study revealing another concerning factor in the form of synergistic effects by unknown amounts of selenium. Because Se is an element considered to be dietary significant and essential, an abstinence or prevention of consumption is not as feasible and thereby cannot be considered as only a pollutant, unlike Pb (Alatise, & Schrauzer 2010).
In mouse studies with the murine mammary tumor virus, it was found that those female individuals exposed to Pb insult displayed a loss of anti-cancer effects provided by Se at levels as low as 0.5 parts per million. These murine findings confound speculation on effects within humans as residues contain Pb are routinely disposed of in an uncontrolled and unregulated manner. Because of this, it is suggested that a large portion of Nigeria experiences chronic exposure to Pb. similar studies have reported through hematological verification that such individuals experience states of decreased immune responsiveness with compelling evidence suggesting and eradication of anti-cancer properties of Se absent in chronically exposed individuals. ((A...
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...t due to the journey undertaken through OPC differentiation to myelin-competent cells. Recent studies have revealed that the presence of ROS and the depletion of natural cellular antioxidant defenses is exacerbated by Pb toxicity. Confounding injuries manifest in the form of ion imbalances capable of disrupting homeostasis, such as Ca2+ accumulation or depletion.
A collection of genes: NCX3, NCX2, and NCX1 have been implicated in the physiological and pathological regulatory functions of the central nervous system. Primarily, disruption and decreased expression of NCX3 was found to impede differentiation of oligodencrocytes.in cultures of OPCs (Ma et al 2015). This was later verified by growth of oligodendrocytes in presence of Pb leading to downregulation of NCX3 as well as increased intracellular calcium induced differentiation interference of OPCS (Ma et al 2015).
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