Essay on A Short Note On Diabetes And Type 1 Diabetes

Essay on A Short Note On Diabetes And Type 1 Diabetes

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DKA and Type 1 Diabetes
1 in 300 people in US have Type 1 diabetes. It can present in any age but found most common in children under 12. In general type 1 DM is the result of absolute insulin deficiency. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cell instead of remaining in the blood controlling blood glucose within the body. Type 1 diabetics remain in a state of hyperglycemia continuously, due to their incapacity to produce insulin. Insulin supplementation, meal planning, monitoring blood glucose level and an exercise program facilitate treatment of this disease.
What is Insulin?
The pancreas houses four types of hormone-secreting cells, one of those types of cells secreted is the beta cell. Alpha cells secrete glucagon, while beta cells synthesize insulin and amylin from the precursor proinsulin, made from 3 peptide chains. Insulin circulates without a carrier within the plasma. Insulin secretes into the body with the rise of blood glucose, gastrointestinal hormones and amino acids; the parasympathetic system also triggers secretion. Insulin secretion halts as a result of low blood glucose, high levels of insulin and sympathetic stimulus of the alpha cells. As the insulin receptor binds, a surge of signals get sent out activating glucose transporters for entrance of glucose into the cell. Without insulin, glucose may not enter into the bodies cells. Insulin sensitivity maintains normal cellular functions, while insulin resistance causes diabetes. Insulin also synthesizes proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids within the liver. Their functions invigorate fat and protein synthesis, reduce blood glucose levels and support intercellular transport of potassium, phosphate and magnesium. Insulin averts hyperglycemia ...


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...urated fats offer 60-70% of energy intake and protein provides 15-20%. Since carbohydrates have the highest impact on post-meal glucose levels it is important to use complex carbohydrates such as fiber to prevent blood glucose from rising too fast after a meal. Complex carbohydrates include whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat milk. Other dietary limitations as follows: less than 7% of saturated fatty intake of total calories, minimal intake of trans fat, dietary cholesterol less than 200 mg/day, including two or more servings of non-fried fish per week providing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013). With her diet, she is eating 10 servings of carbohydrates a day will increase her weight but stabilize blood glucose more sufficiently. Proper diet and nutrition diminishes metabolic changes increasing energy (Krzymien et al., 2015).

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