In this study, the CRPV/HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model was used to assess the protective immunity generated by DNA vaccines delivered using the gene gun, the tattoo gun or the microneedle system. The focus was to determine whether the tattoo gun and the microneedle delivery systems were useful DNA vaccination alternatives to the gene gun. Our laboratory has successfully utilized the gene gun in our DNA vaccination studies for both protective and therapeutic purposes (17,34). However, the gene gun system is costly and we are constantly looking for alternatives to back up our vaccine development program. Tattoo gun has been reported to successfully deliver a DNA vaccine in both mice and non-human primates (21-23). Compared with the gene gun and microneedle, tattoo gun delivery is more cost effective but more invasive which generates trauma and scars the vaccinated tissues. Microneedle delivery has achieved comparable protection in mice with twice the dose of gene gun delivery (24 ). However, no studies have been attempted in rabbits for DNA vaccination with either a tattoo gun or a microneedle. In the current study, we compared vaccination with either tattoo gun or microneedle using our well-studied DNA epitope vaccines and our unique HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model (39). Read out was tumor outgrowth rates and tumor size. We demonstrated that these two novel DNA delivery systems can be used for DNA vaccination in the rabbit model.
The preparation and coding efficacy of bullets for gene gun delivery largely depends on the quality of tubing and other reagents. We encountered discontinuation of tubing from the original suppliers and the new supplier gave less satisfactory coating. Therefore, the dose for gene gun del...
... middle of paper ...
...ier to control the delivery dose when compared with the gene gun that several preparation steps cause loss of DNA and inconsistency. In the third comparative study, we did not include a gene gun group because of unprecedented changes in resources of reagents for coating the bullets. Instead, we conducted a side-by side comparative study using the microneedle and the tattoo gun vaccination. We applied the same amount of DNA vaccine that was used for gene gun delivery for both delivery methods. Our results demonstrated that microneedle was not only effective but also comparable to the tattoo gun delivery. The protective immunity by both tattoo gun and microneedle delivered DNA vaccination was further confirmed with in vitro tetramer binding assay and in vivo CTL killing assay, indicating specific CTL production eliminated the infected cells in these immunized animals.
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