A Research Study On The Protective Immunity Essay example

A Research Study On The Protective Immunity Essay example

Length: 762 words (2.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

4. DISCUSSION
In this study, the CRPV/HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model was used to assess the protective immunity generated by DNA vaccines delivered using the gene gun, the tattoo gun or the microneedle system. The focus was to determine whether the tattoo gun and the microneedle delivery systems were useful DNA vaccination alternatives to the gene gun. Our laboratory has successfully utilized the gene gun in our DNA vaccination studies for both protective and therapeutic purposes (17,34). However, the gene gun system is costly and we are constantly looking for alternatives to back up our vaccine development program. Tattoo gun has been reported to successfully deliver a DNA vaccine in both mice and non-human primates (21-23). Compared with the gene gun and microneedle, tattoo gun delivery is more cost effective but more invasive which generates trauma and scars the vaccinated tissues. Microneedle delivery has achieved comparable protection in mice with twice the dose of gene gun delivery (24 ). However, no studies have been attempted in rabbits for DNA vaccination with either a tattoo gun or a microneedle. In the current study, we compared vaccination with either tattoo gun or microneedle using our well-studied DNA epitope vaccines and our unique HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model (39). Read out was tumor outgrowth rates and tumor size. We demonstrated that these two novel DNA delivery systems can be used for DNA vaccination in the rabbit model.
The preparation and coding efficacy of bullets for gene gun delivery largely depends on the quality of tubing and other reagents. We encountered discontinuation of tubing from the original suppliers and the new supplier gave less satisfactory coating. Therefore, the dose for gene gun del...


... middle of paper ...


...ier to control the delivery dose when compared with the gene gun that several preparation steps cause loss of DNA and inconsistency. In the third comparative study, we did not include a gene gun group because of unprecedented changes in resources of reagents for coating the bullets. Instead, we conducted a side-by side comparative study using the microneedle and the tattoo gun vaccination. We applied the same amount of DNA vaccine that was used for gene gun delivery for both delivery methods. Our results demonstrated that microneedle was not only effective but also comparable to the tattoo gun delivery. The protective immunity by both tattoo gun and microneedle delivered DNA vaccination was further confirmed with in vitro tetramer binding assay and in vivo CTL killing assay, indicating specific CTL production eliminated the infected cells in these immunized animals.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on Immunity to Parasites and Apoptosis

- IMMUNITY TO PARASITES AND APOPTOSIS. Humoral and cellular immunity are the two sides of immunity turn on during parasitic infections and ideally are aimed to fight infection. However, in some cases immunity to parasites can exacerbate the disease and induce tissue injury. Cellular Immunity Animal models have been most useful to better understand mechanisms of immunity to parasites. Athymic mice that lack T cells are unable to control several parasite infections. This clearly indicates that T cells play an important role during the development of these infections (39,40)....   [tags: Biology, Cellular Immunity]

Better Essays
1925 words (5.5 pages)

A Research Study On Research Essay

- Research starts with a hypothesis. Once your hypothesis is well developed you must execute your plan to test it. Conducting developmental research typically requires a design method and a research strategy. Research designs are the general plans to test the hypothesis. Common design methods include longitudinal, cross section and sequential. Research strategies are methods for gathering data. Research strategies include systemic observation, self-reports, clinical method, and ethnography. The longitudinal design for research development consist of studying the same participants over a period of time (Berk, 2010)....   [tags: Research methods, Scientific method, Cohort study]

Better Essays
1148 words (3.3 pages)

Essay on Goal Setting and Overcoming Immunity to Change

- In March, my PSYC class was presented with a challenge - to identify a personal improvement goal and to address this issue using an Immunity to Change map. My lengthy list of personal struggles was quickly narrowed down to one item with focused reflection. My improvement goal was to engage in productive thoughts and behaviors that would provide better time management practices. I was initially looking to improve my behaviors at home so that it would translate into success in all areas of my life including my career....   [tags: Immunity Change Map]

Better Essays
2746 words (7.8 pages)

A Research Study On Quantitative Research Essay

- Main Question Post: Discussion 5 Introduction A research design is a benchmark utilized in planning, implementation, and exploring a study, and blueprint for solving the research question or hypothesis. According to Polit and Beck (2017), in research study arrays of research questions and hypothesis mandates research designs that differs hence it is imperative for the scholar-researchers to have a comprehensive knowledge base related to arrays of research designs accessible. Research designs are usually categorized as quantitative or else qualitative, lately, research scholars are now collectively changing to blending research designs of both quantitative and qualitative....   [tags: Scientific method, Research]

Better Essays
911 words (2.6 pages)

Essay about A Research Study On Quantitative Research

- Many describe Quantitative research method as the oldest form of social research and trusted by most researchers as they believe that anything that has been proven with the help of numbers cannot be wrong (Alston & Bowles, 2012, p. 10). Basically Quantitative method deals with numbers, the researcher 's own presence is minimal and has deductive approach. It is most commonly used when, one began with a Hypothesis and that needed to confirm or reconfirm through research. It is a type of research in which the researcher decide what to study, ask specific questions, collects quantifiable data, analysis these data and conducts the enquiry in an objective manner....   [tags: Scientific method, Qualitative research]

Better Essays
1265 words (3.6 pages)

Essay on A Research Study On Scientific Research

- Introduction Scientific research is a variety of methods to help investigate ways to solve problems and find causes and effects of different information. Zmatana. K (2012) brings forth the argument that for research to be classified as scientific it needs a set of guidelines, protocols and long established methods to gather documenting information. Reliability is defined as how frequent a research can yield the same or similar results. Validity is how a research paints a real picture of the real world by including thoughts and feelings of answers and results given....   [tags: Scientific method, Qualitative research]

Better Essays
1390 words (4 pages)

A Research Study On Quality Research Essay

- Quality Research The topic of research has yielded a multitude of definitions and theories as to what it truly is. One just needs to conduct a simple search via the internet to see how vast the responses for definitions are. One key term that is repeated in many of the definitions is systematic. Cottrell and McKenzie (2011) state their definition as: “a systematic investigation involving the analysis of collected information or data that ultimately is used to enhance health education knowledge or practice and answers one or more questions about a health-related theory, behavior, or phenomenon” (p....   [tags: Scientific method, Research, Data analysis]

Better Essays
1651 words (4.7 pages)

Essay on Types Of Study Research On Research

- Types of Study Research One particular case in point is, the actual fact in which the term research ' is definitely implemented incorrectly applied. Effective suggestions are generally in which recognize erroneous utilization that belongs towards the phrase is comprised of such conditions as, acquiring critical information as well as particulars or significant facts without requiring a specific function ', to make certain essential information to consider as a possible component of assessment, it should be centered on an impartial) in addition to that, rebuilding not to mention reordering important information together with data or perhaps knowledge with no need of understanding (Sekaran, 20...   [tags: Scientific method, Research, Science, Hypothesis]

Better Essays
1639 words (4.7 pages)

A Research Study On Research Essay

- Synthesis Paper 3 research is conducted by all types of business, companies and organizations to gain information about products and different topics. Also, it was brought to Rose’s attention that behavioral science had four goals: description of behavior, prediction of behavior, determining the causes of behavior, and explanation of behavior (Cozby and Bates 2012). Rose learned about the APA style in the first module, and the information was a great help in writing her first paper. She learned how to set up the paper with a title page, abstract, body and bibliography....   [tags: Research, Scientific method, Psychology]

Better Essays
1055 words (3 pages)

Essay about Voting Research Study

- This research is targeting the population which are citizens eligible to vote, in this case above the age of 18. There are a mix of Qualitative and quantitative research. About 8 focus groups of sizes Between 6-8 will be conducted at the electoral commission. A couple Of depth interviews will be conducted. The profile of these participants Are citizens eligible to vote. They are picked at random. These research Methods provide a rich insight to the research problem. On the other hand, quantitative research is as important as qualitative research....   [tags: Voting Research Study Australia]

Free Essays
1666 words (4.8 pages)