While the influential realm encompasses all the elements of a tourist experience which are outside the individual including the physical environment, the social environment and the tourism products and services, the personal realm embraces the elements within a person. This includes motivation and expectation, satisfaction/dissatisfaction, knowledge, memory, perception, self-identity and emotions.
220.127.116.11 Motivation and Expectation
Literature on tourist experience outlines the importance of both motivation and expectation in the overall evaluation of the experience of a destination. Although there are a number of variables shaping the tourist behaviour, motivation and expectation are often considered as the most critical ones as they constitute the driving force behind all behavioural actions of tourists towards a destination (Fodness, 1994). This is also reiterated by Garcia-Mas and Garcia-Mas (2005, as cited in Gisolf, 2014) pinpointing that “needs, motives and motivation are the engine of human conduct and play together with expectations a fundamental role in the mechanics of tourism”. This strong bond between motivation and expectation is also described by Pocock (1992, p. 242) stating that “[t]ravel and expectation go hand in hand. Whether it is rumour heard, a book read, brochure borrowed or bought, we all travel hopefully”. Without expectations there is no tourist or a tourism activity as they motivate individuals to plan, book and execute their travel experience (Skinner & Theodossopoulos, 2011a). This is true for all types of tourists, be it a structured package tourist, a wandering backpacker or a mainstream travel consumer.
Looking at motivation in more detail, it is often referred to as “psych...
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In tourism, satisfaction is perceived as the “congruence between expectation and experience” (Pearce, 2005, as cited in Quinlan Cutler & Carmichael, 2010, p. 13) and occurs when the tourists’ experiences meet or exceed their expectations. Dissatisfaction, instead, is seen as the result when there is a gap between the tourists’ experiences and their expectations (Ryan, 1995; Korzay & Alvarez, 2005). This approach has also been mentioned by Peter and Olson (1996, as cited in Prebensen, 2004, p. 4) stating that “satisfaction is the result or the final step of a psychological process from need recognition to [the] evaluation of the experienced products”. Oliver (1997, p. 13), instead, defines satisfaction as “a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfilment”.
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