A Multi Faceted Theoretical Approach Essay

A Multi Faceted Theoretical Approach Essay

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1. INTRODUCTION
Terrorism has been defined from various conceptual perspectives and context resulting in the lack of consensus on a universal definition of the term terrorism. The lack of consensus of what terrorism is reflects the fact that such definitions have emerged based on the peculiar experiences countries have had with terroristic activities. In addition, there have been various explanations given to the objectives and intentions of terrorist activities: religious, political, ideological, economic or social (Adesoji, 2010; Arnett, 2014; Mara, 2013; Olojo; 2013; Zalman, 2015). In the Northeastern region of Nigeria, the sect Jama’atul Ahlus Sunnah Lid daawati wal Jihad also known as Boko Haram has been struggling for what some have described as the establishment of an Islamic Caliphate (Adesoji, 2010; Azumah, 2015; Copeland, 2013). However various media reports and theses on the phenomenon have obscured the understanding of the persistence of the Boko Haram insurgency. This article will present a multi-faceted theoretical approach towards the persistence of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Concepts from the poverty theory, relative deprivation theory and the social identity theory are used to formulate an integrated conceptual framework for understanding the sect. The persistence of Boko Haram’s insurgency is a manifestation of socio-economic and psychological factors, religious, ethnic and political factors. Thus, addressing the Boko Haram insurgency must take into account the complexities of these varied factors because the incessant execution of armed combatant against them might only provide temporary victories and a possible resistance from the sect, but not a lasting solution to the sect’s prevalence in Nigeria....


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...judicial killing of Yusuf in 2009. Yusuf’s killing was an outcome of the Operation Flush Out led by the Nigerian Police. This led to a clash between Police and members of the sect during which about 1000 people died (with 700 killed in Borno State) and Mohammed Yusuf – and other sect leaders – were arrested (Shuaibu, Salleh & Shehu, 2015). The video of the incident was later revealed by the news media (Al Jazeera, 2010; Campbell, 2014), while hundreds of Yusuf’s followers, including Mohammed Yusuf, were extra judicially killed (Al Jazeera, 2010; Gorman, 2009). The reconstituted Boko Haram sought revenge against the Police and committed itself to overthrowing the Nigerian State government through violence and establishing an Islamic State (Campbell, 2014). Thus, all restraint was removed as Boko Haram transformed into the violent organization it currently is (ibid).

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