Tourette’s syndrome is characterized by both a motor and/or one or more phonic tics (Robertson, 2000). Initial symptoms of Tourette’s begins with motor tics followed by the onset of phonic tics at a later age (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [NIH], 2012). Tics can be categorized as either simple or complex. Simple motor tics include eye blinking, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, head or shoulder jerking. Simple phonic tics include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing or grunting sounds (Robertson, 2000).Complex motor tics involve a wider range of group muscles and are usually coordinated patterns of movement comprising of touching, licking, spitting, jumping and squatting. Some motor tics can become self-injurious, as a result of punching oneself or head banging (Robertson et al., 2000). A study done at University College and Middlese...
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...6. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (2012, January 1).National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS
7. Piacentini, J., Woods, D. W., Scahill, L., Wilhelm, S., Peterson, A. L., Chang, S. Walkup, J. T. (2010). Behavior Therapy for Children With Tourette Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Jama-journal of The American Medical Association.
8. Robertson, M (2000) Tourette syndrome, associated conditions and the complexities of treatment. Brain, 425-462.
9. Robertson., Trimble., & Lees. (2009). Self-injurious behaviour and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: a clinical study and review of the literature. Cambridge Journal, 19(03).
10. Yuen., Saldivar., Sommer., & Picker.(2008).Familial deletion within NLGN4 associated with autism and Tourette syndrome. European Journal of Human Genetics, , 614-618.
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