A Demonstration Of The Unidirectional Flushing Efficiency Essay

A Demonstration Of The Unidirectional Flushing Efficiency Essay

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As a demonstration of the unidirectional flushing efficiency, was found a real case study of City of Tracy, CA. This city had around 74,000 habitants in 2005, when the unidirectional flushing study was made. This study was performed intending to reduce customer complains, improve water quality, and extend the longevity of their water system structure. The project included developing of an optimized flushing program using the City’s hydraulic model, in which was create a flushing sector map and flushing loops for the distribution system. So, basically a review about the system maps was made and after that was created a hydraulic model in which they could know what way the water was flowing.
The project was divided in many phases, the first one consisted of scanning the utility’s map in order to determine the location of hydrants, valves, blow-offs in the main system network, as we can see in the Figure 1 on Appendix D. With these locations, they developed a map of system for unidirectional flushing (UDF) program. The next step of the first phase was developing seasonal diurnal curves to determine the normal flow paths and direction of water movement in the system during typical seasonal demands.
The second phase of the project was the optimization phase of the program, in which they divided the pipe networks into sectors concerning to move the water from clean to dirty areas. Furthermore, these sectors were divided in order to reach a minimum velocity of 6 feet per second during the flushing process, as well as to maintain minimum pressure for basic service (30 psi). The second step of this phase was the division of theses sectors into loops, making sure that it could be performed in a maximum of 1 day, and separating in an alp...

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...resulting cost involved (Carrière et al, 2005). As reported by Carrière et al (2005), the flushing process frequency can be determined by the accumulation rates. Networks presenting low accumulation rates, described as 10 g/m/yr should consider modifying the treated water characteristics (Carrière et al, 2005).
The overtaking of 10 g/m/yr of the accumulation rate indicate something wrong in the water treatment plant methods. The result of this may be the lost of money, since that they will perform flushing more frequently to maintain secure levels of drinking water.
In general, some triggers, or main factors, can be used to determine the frequency in which the flushing process need to be done, such as the percentage of cast iron in water mains and the cost per mile of pipeline flushed, since that as higher the cost, less frequent it will be performed (Brand, 2000).

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