...... ''In 1974, the Derg regime comes to power, and central government extends reach to community level through the Peasant Associations (PA), established as lowest administrative units. PA boundaries were based on ethnic boundaries, legitimizing clan-based claims to resources......
In 1991, Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) (1991-present) comes to power, introducing a decentralization policy with emphasis on participation in development planning. Water becomes regional responsibilities. Regional governments are responsible for drafting/implementing policies and plans in line with federal policies, plans, and strategies.....''
The events in 1974 indicate monopoly in the administration of natural resources; however, in 1991 there was pluralism which involves different actors. This idea is shared by Castro (2007) who argues that classic administration rooted in "state monopoly'' substitute by novel type of management system which has ''paragmatic pluralism'' nature in the context of development policy. According to Castro, there are various views for explanation of governance '', governance is multi-layered'', '' multi-scale'' and '' multi-sector.'' picture (Castro, 2007, p.103). This notion go with Ethiopian water service governance shift after the downfall of the Derg regime at which water service delivery entails two-pronged and many-sided organizations, society and NGOs to increase its efficiency, accountability and transparency.
In the same line, some authors ...
... middle of paper ...
.... Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ministry of Water
Resources, Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
MoWR, (2002). Water Sector Development Program Volume II.
Rahmato, D. (1999). Water resource development in Ethiopia: Issues of sustainability
and participation. Addis Ababa.
Schwartz, K. (2008). The New Public Management: The future for reforms in the African water supply and sanitation sector? Utilities Policy, 16(1), 49-58.
Seppälä, O. T. (2002). Effective water and sanitation policy reform implementation: need for systemic approach and stakeholder participation. Water Policy, 4(4), 367-388.
Teshome, W., Tolossa,D., Mandefro, F., Alamirew, B., (2012). Governance and Public
Service Delivery: The Case of Water Supply and Roads Services Delivery in Addis
Ababa and Hawassa Cities, Global development network draft paper.
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