4.1. July seismicity spike and dynamic triggering
The month of July saw a large increase in seismicity beginning of the 15th and lasting for approximately 5 days. The amount of activity during this time was particularly anomalous, as the month and a half preceding it saw relatively low levels of seismicity. An average of 2.8 earthquakes per day was interrupted by jump to 111 earthquakes on 15 July. On the same day that the increase began in the central Southern Alps, Dusky Sound experienced a magnitude 7.8 earthquake (GeoNet 2009). While the spike in seismicity near the central Alpine Fault on the same day could be viewed as coincidental, it is more reasonable, in light of observations made on other fault systems around the world, that two events are related.
4.1.1. Dynamic triggering
Dynamic triggering takes place when radiating seismic waves impose transient stresses in the earth’s crust resulting in the nucleation of other earthquakes, sometimes hundreds of kilometres from the original source (Shelly et al. 2011; Freed 2005). As the stresses imposed are transient in nature, they generally do not leave long lasting changes in the stress field (Freed 2005). This leads to a few different ways that these imposed stresses can trigger earthquakes.
The first mechanism by which dynamic triggering can generate earthquakes is called clock advancing (Gomberg et al. 1997; Gomberg et al. 1998). In this situation, and earthquake already late into its cycle is essentially advanced further to a point in its cycle, beyond where normal tectonic loading would put it, where it is primed for rupture (Freed 2005). Rate and state friction laws also can play a key role in earthquake nucleation (Scholz 1998). Depending on the system a...
... middle of paper ...
...) so close to the fault trace.
The spike in seismicity in the region of the central Alpine Fault on 15 July 2009, more than mere coincidence, seems to be likely a result of dynamic triggering due to transient stresses imparted by seismic energy from the magnitude 7.3 Dusky Sound earthquake. However, due to the paucity of data between Fiordland and the SAMBA seismic array or any other corroborating data, this cannot be concluded with certainty.
For the entirety of the 5-month period under investigation in this report, seismicity was concentrated almost entirely within the hanging-wall occurring in 3 clusters. The elevated seismicity for mid-July as well as the slightly elevated background levels post-July are likely due to the flow-on effects from the dynamic trigging on 15 July 2009. The depth of which occurred within ~15 km of the seismogenic zone.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Spike Lee’s Mastery Journey In this paper, I will be discussing the path of mastery of my personal hero, Spike Lee. I will discuss how his journey translates to the three steps in the Keys of Mastery in Robert Greene’s book. I will reflect on how one or more of the Emotional Pitfalls, stated in the book, were faced by Spike Lee. Finally, I will provide a cross comparative analysis between my hero’s journey and one of the nine people’s profiles in the Strategies for the Creative-Active Phase. Spike Lee is one of my new-found heroes.... [tags: Film, Morehouse College, Spike Lee, School Daze]
1077 words (3.1 pages)
- Rationale: This design brief is intended to take into account the results of Heath’s VAST heuristic (relating to activities) (1989, in Elliott-Burns, 2003) and a selection of Lackney’s Design Principles (n.d.). Hennah’s (2007) concepts of traffic flow and layout will be incorporated. The design will also consider the requirements of integrating a guided inquiry pedagogy. The users of the space will also be given the opportunity to take part in the process. Heath’s VAST heuristic offers a “rich alternative” (p7, 1989, as cited in Elliott-Burns, 2005) to a checklist approach to designing and can be used to evaluate a learning space and lead to the design of a new one.... [tags: Design Brief]
2158 words (6.2 pages)
- Amidst the continually increasing levels of commercially distributed music, there is widespread concern that the sonic quality of today’s popular music is deteriorating. More than ever before, dynamic compression is utilized in mixing and mastering to make a song as loud as possible. The belief that “louder is better” has lead to these mixing and mastering practices that have since been coined as “The Loudness Wars”. The great irony in this matter is that in an age where technology thrives and our advancements in applied sciences have come so far, one should expect the quality of recorded music to be outstanding.... [tags: Dynamic Compression of Music]
2263 words (6.5 pages)
- Director and actor Spike Lee presents his "truth" about race relations in his movie Do the Right Thing. The film exhibits the spectacle of black discrimination and racial altercations. Through serious, angry, and loud sounds, Lee stays true to the ethnicity of his characters, all of which reflect their own individualism. Lee uses insulting diction and intense scenes to show how severe racism can lead to violence. The biases reflected through Do the Right Thing model those of today which has kept society in a constant feud for so long.... [tags: Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing Essays]
1426 words (4.1 pages)
- For the unit has learning assignment I would like to started with the meant by a dynamic array. What is the advantage of a dynamic array over a regular array?” I did started with The unit learning guide overview and the topics that defined • Arrays • Dynamic arrays and Array lists • Searching and sorting arrays • Multi- dimensional array By reviewing and reading the given topic as much as possible and practiced some of the basic concepts of Array in the unit. Great thing Advantages of an array- based implementation is- Fast, random access of elements and very memory efficient, every little memory is required to store the contents The negative and disadvantages about Array is to slow de... [tags: The Elements, Element, Dynamic array]
707 words (2 pages)
- Cybercrime and social media are two major global problems that impact society. Today, are more accessible to computers and the Internet than in years prior. Nonetheless, perpetrators attack social media with illegal activity to facilitate their crime. There are different strategies or practices by various countries to combat cybercrime. However, identity theft, cyberbullying and phishing are three major type of cybercrimes which are impacting social networking websites. Many factors play right into the advantage of identity theft through social media.... [tags: Social network service, MySpace, Identity theft]
996 words (2.8 pages)
- Analysis of the Movie Do the Right Thing by Spike Lee The movie, Do the Right Thing, by Spike Lee is a hard hitting drama that deals with violence and racism in today's society. This film is set in a primarily black neighborhood in close to the present time. Right in the center of this neighborhood stands a pizza parlor that is owned and operated by one of the most important characters in the movie, Sal. In the beginning of the movie, Sal is shown arriving to work with his two sons Pino and Vito.... [tags: Do the Right Thing Spike Lee Racism Essays]
1489 words (4.3 pages)
- Suicide Note Analysis In 1987, Janice Mirikitani wrote and published a poem titled Suicide Note. The speaker of the poem, a female, Asian American college student who commits suicide after receiving slightly-less-than-perfect grades, gives repeated apologies to her parents and tells them exactly how she feels in a suicide note - one most probably addressed to them. In the poem, Mirikitani conveys a sad and somber mood while implementing an extended metaphor to compare the speaker to a bird. “How many notes written…” (Mirikitani 1-2).... [tags: Suicide, Suicide note, Suicide methods]
1021 words (2.9 pages)
- According to the Patient Affordable Care Act (ACA), it was required of most individuals to have insurance coverage by 2014, or will be mandated to pay financial tax penalty. Under this legislation, 17 million Americans received health insurance coverage by early 2015, more than 8 million received premium from subsidies to counterbalance the cost of their private coverage and 6.5 million individuals who were uninsured gained coverage through Medicaid (Norris, 2015). To diminish the cost of insurance coverage for uninsured individuals or people with low - incomes, the government has allowed states to expand their coverages by implementing a program called Basic Health Program (BHP) to provide... [tags: Health insurance, Health care, Health economics]
716 words (2 pages)
- The Pelican Brief, an irresistible story that begins with the simultaneous assassinations of two Supreme Court Judges. One October night one of the liberal Judges, A. Rosenberg, is shot in the head while sleeping in his Georgetown home. Two hours later G. Jensen, the Court's youngest and most conservative judge, is strangled, possibly by the same assassin. America is in shock, the F.B.I. has no clues. Darby Shaw is a brilliant law student at Tulane University in New Orleans when she heard about the two murders.... [tags: Pelican Brief John Grisham Book Review]
1453 words (4.2 pages)