Essay about A Brief Look at Breast Cancer

Essay about A Brief Look at Breast Cancer

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BREAST CANCER
Introduction/Background
Cancer is characterized by unregulated/uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. The etiological factors of Cancer include both external factors (tobacco, infectious organisms, chemicals, and radiation) and inherent factors (inherited mutations, hormones, immune conditions, and mutations that occur from metabolism). The etiological factors may act together or in sequence to trigger the development of cancer. It may take several years for the manifestation of the disease to be obvious after the initial trigger.

CDC: Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by State, 2010

Incidence/Mortality
Breast cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy, it accounts for one third of all diagnosed female cancers in US, and it’s the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. About 6.6% of all breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women less than 40 of age, 2.4% in women less than 35, and 0.65% in women less than 30. [4].

CDC: Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Race and Ethnicity, U.S., 1999–2010

The incidence rates of breast cancer were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008 and the death rates have been declining since the early 1990s except in American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. There are obvious disparities in breast cancer death rates by state, socioeconomic status and race. Decline in death rates were observed in 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years while rates remained constant in the other 14 states. Annual
mammography and a clinical breast examination should be encouraged in patients aged 40 years or older for early detection and reduce complications. [2]. It is estimated that 232,340...


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...s poorer, partly due to presence of more aggressive subtypes in this population. Also they are more likely to present when the disease is advanced or they may have delayed diagnosis because of a low index of suspicion by the physician and patient.







Reference
1. Cancer Facts & Figures 2013. The American Cancer Society, Inc.
2. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. Breast Cancer Statistics, 2011. Carol DeSantis, MPH1; Rebecca Siegel, MPH2; Priti Bandi, MS3; Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, PhD
3. ABC of Breast Diseases. Breast cancer—epidemiology, risk factors, and genetics. K McPherson, C M Steel, J M Dixon. BMJ Vol 321, September 2000.
4. Epidemiology and prognosis of breast cancer in young women. Hussein A. Assi, Katia E. Khoury, Haifa Dbouk, Lana E. Khalil, Tarek H. Mouhieddine, Nagi S. El Saghir. Vol 5, Supplement 1 (June 2013): Journal of Thoracic Disease.

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