A Brief Description of Bipolar Disorder Essay

A Brief Description of Bipolar Disorder Essay

Length: 663 words (1.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Since Bipolar Disorder involves the cycling between two different states of mania and major depression, there are many different etiological factors in play. The neurotransmitters that are involved in this disease are serotonin, norepinehrine and dopamine. There has been some preliminary research involved with glutamate as well. In patients with the depressive portion of Bipolar Disorder, Serotonin levels were found to be lower than healthy, non-depressed patients (Young, Warsh, Kish, Shannak & Hornykeiwicz, 1994). Young et. al. (1994) found reduced amounts serotonin’s metabolite, 5-HIAA, in frontal and parietal lobes of deceased bipolar disorder patients. Norepinehphrine was also found to be lower as well. During the depressed state of bipolar disorder, the concentration of norepinehphrine ‘s synthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was lower in the locus coeruleus than patients who only had depression and not Bipolar Disorder (Wiste, Arango, Ellis, Mann, & Underwood, 2008). Although in the mania cycle of Bipolar Disorder, Norepinephrine is found to be elevated in the brain (Manji & Lenox,2000). Furthermore, Dopamine was also found to be lower in the brain as well during the depressed state of Bipolar disorder. According to a study by Vawter, Freed, Kleinman (2000), the concentration of the metabolite of dopamine, homovanillic acid, was found to be significantly lower in the parietal lobe of the brain. Dopamine Agonists, while they can treat the depression cycle of the disorder, can also bring about the mania in the disorder; therefore, the pharmacological treatment of the Bipolar disorder must be regulated heavily so that the treatment itself doesn’t exacerbate the disorder instead of treat the disorder (Manji et. al. 2003). ...

... middle of paper ...

... & Lenox, R. (2000). The nature of bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(13), 42-57.
Sklar, P., Gabriel, S. B., Craddock, N., DePaulo, J. R., Lander, E. S., McInnis, M. G., et al. (2002). Family-based Association Study of 76 Candidate Genes in Bipolar Disorder: BDNF is a Potential Risk Locus. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 579-593.
Vawter, M. P., Freed, W. J., & Kleinman, J. E. (2000). Neuropathology Of Bipolar Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 48(6), 486-504.
Wiste, A. K., Arango, V., Ellis, S. P., Mann, J. J., & Underwood, M. D. (2008). Norepinephrine And Serotonin Imbalance In The Locus Coeruleus In Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 10(3), 349-359.
Young, L., Warsh, J. J., Kish, S. J., Shannak, K., & Hornykeiwicz, O. (1994). Reduced Brain 5-HT And Elevated NE Turnover And Metabolites In Bipolar Affective Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 35(2), 121-127.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay

- Bipolar disorder is also known as manic-depression disorder, may cause unusual changes in mood and behavior such as grandiosity, decreased energy, distractibility, diminished interest, insomnia, pressured speech, suicidal thoughts, and decrease in the ability to carry out day to day tasks (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; 5th Ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). According to Jann (2014) the symptoms of bipolar disorders are severe alternating between normal ups and downs leading in damaged relationships, poor job and school performance, and even suicide among the most severe....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Bipolar spectrum]

Better Essays
1359 words (3.9 pages)

Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay example

- Bipolar disorder affects approximately 5.7 million Americans, of ages 18 and older. There is no specific person it affects it can happen to almost anyone, regardless of age, sex, or race. On the other hand, different types of episodes of bipolar disorder some are can be more serious than others. The three main types of the bipolar disorder are Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, and Cyclothymic disorder. The five main episodes of the bipolar disorder are Manic Episode, Major Depressive Episode, Hypo manic Episode, Mixed Episode, and Rapid Cycling or Ultra-Rapid Cycling....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Bipolar spectrum]

Better Essays
713 words (2 pages)

Bipolar Disorder : Bipolar And Depression Essays

- Bipolar I disorder is the most easily diagnosed of the four. A person with bipolar I has episodes of both mania and depression, but the mania is the most prominent. In order to diagnose bipolar I, the patient must have at least one manic episode in their lifetime that lasts a week or longer and it must impede upon their daily living or cause a hospitalization. Bipolar II A person with bipolar II has depressed episodes as well as hypomania (a milder form of mania.) To diagnose bipolar II, the patient must have hypomanic symptoms for four days or more....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania]

Better Essays
948 words (2.7 pages)

Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay

- Bipolar Disorder Before deriving to a conclusion concerning the mental health disorder, bipolar depression, the public should comprehend and combine both materials and statistics from mainstream media sources such as news articles and television shows and scholarly journal articles to better understand and become educated on this psychotic mood disorder and impact it has on individuals, families and society as a whole. Bipolar disorder is “a disorder marked by alternating or intermixed periods of mania.” There are two categories according to DSM-5; Bipolar I disorder and Bipolar II disorder....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder]

Better Essays
1090 words (3.1 pages)

Bipolar : A Mental Disorder Essay

- Introduction: The topic of my assignment is Bipolar which is known as a mental disorder that is characterized by serious mood swings. Not too long away it was known by the public as manic depression. The personage is a fictitious male of 24 year of age with the name of Sweeney Todd. His father has been diagnosed with bipolar also and has stayed in a hospital during his treatment. General description of Bipolar: Bipolar often reveals itself often during the later adolescence years of a person, and experiences two types of alternating peeks in their behavior....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania]

Better Essays
1417 words (4 pages)

Bipolar Disorder ( Bd ) Essay

- 1. Topic Identification The topic that will be explored through this paper is Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is also known as Bipolar Affective Disorder, Manic-Depressive Illness, and is categorized as either Bipolar Disorder I, or Bipolar Disorder II. BD is a diagnosis that has become so common in today’s society that there is a song written about it; titled “Secrets” and is sung by Mary Lambert. The song has assisted in bringing awareness, to the disorder as well as, some of the issues those suffering from the disorder experience....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Schizophrenia]

Better Essays
1363 words (3.9 pages)

The Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay

- An interesting topic to discuss is the bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is defined as, “A disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement” (Hockenbury & Hockenbury 578). Bipolar disorder has the same symptoms as depression and then cycles through a period of mania. Additionally, you can still be diagnosed with Bipolar disorder if you only experience manic episodes (Hockenbury & Hockenbury 578). The manic episode can last for several days and are typically shorter than the depression state....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Hypomania, Psychosis]

Better Essays
900 words (2.6 pages)

Bipolar Disorder ( Bipolar ) Essay

- Bipolar Disorder can be classified by the occurrence of manic episodes followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes. A manic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, extensive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day. During the specific period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, many symptoms are present. Some examples of these symptoms can include: -Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, and are more talkative than usual (“Bipolar and Related Disorders, “n.d.)....   [tags: Bipolar disorder, Mania, Major depressive disorder]

Better Essays
976 words (2.8 pages)

Bipolar Disorder Essay examples

- In life we all go through experiences that cause our moods to change for better or for worse. There are times that we experience degrees of great joy and happiness just as other times we experience great sadness and despair. These polar emotional opposites can be brought about by a cornucopia of circumstances such as the joy and excitement of getting married or the birth of a child to the deep sadness and grief over the loss of a loved one or one’s employment. Feelings of joy and feelings of sadness are normal parts of human life....   [tags: Causes of Bipolar Disorder]

Better Essays
2616 words (7.5 pages)

Essay about Bipolar Disorder

- Abstract Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness in which a person’s mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. Bipolar disorder is also called manic-depressive illness. In a related disorder called cyclothymic disorder (sometimes called Bipolar III), a person’s mood alternates between mild depression and mild mania. Some people with cyclothymic disorder later develop full-blown bipolar disorder. Rates of bipolar disorder are similar throughout the world. At least fifteen percent of people with bipolar disorder commit suicide....   [tags: Bipolar Disorder Research Paper]

Better Essays
3266 words (9.3 pages)