A Brief Description of Bipolar Disorder Essay

A Brief Description of Bipolar Disorder Essay

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Since Bipolar Disorder involves the cycling between two different states of mania and major depression, there are many different etiological factors in play. The neurotransmitters that are involved in this disease are serotonin, norepinehrine and dopamine. There has been some preliminary research involved with glutamate as well. In patients with the depressive portion of Bipolar Disorder, Serotonin levels were found to be lower than healthy, non-depressed patients (Young, Warsh, Kish, Shannak & Hornykeiwicz, 1994). Young et. al. (1994) found reduced amounts serotonin’s metabolite, 5-HIAA, in frontal and parietal lobes of deceased bipolar disorder patients. Norepinehphrine was also found to be lower as well. During the depressed state of bipolar disorder, the concentration of norepinehphrine ‘s synthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was lower in the locus coeruleus than patients who only had depression and not Bipolar Disorder (Wiste, Arango, Ellis, Mann, & Underwood, 2008). Although in the mania cycle of Bipolar Disorder, Norepinephrine is found to be elevated in the brain (Manji & Lenox,2000). Furthermore, Dopamine was also found to be lower in the brain as well during the depressed state of Bipolar disorder. According to a study by Vawter, Freed, Kleinman (2000), the concentration of the metabolite of dopamine, homovanillic acid, was found to be significantly lower in the parietal lobe of the brain. Dopamine Agonists, while they can treat the depression cycle of the disorder, can also bring about the mania in the disorder; therefore, the pharmacological treatment of the Bipolar disorder must be regulated heavily so that the treatment itself doesn’t exacerbate the disorder instead of treat the disorder (Manji et. al. 2003). ...


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... & Lenox, R. (2000). The nature of bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(13), 42-57.
Sklar, P., Gabriel, S. B., Craddock, N., DePaulo, J. R., Lander, E. S., McInnis, M. G., et al. (2002). Family-based Association Study of 76 Candidate Genes in Bipolar Disorder: BDNF is a Potential Risk Locus. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 579-593.
Vawter, M. P., Freed, W. J., & Kleinman, J. E. (2000). Neuropathology Of Bipolar Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 48(6), 486-504.
Wiste, A. K., Arango, V., Ellis, S. P., Mann, J. J., & Underwood, M. D. (2008). Norepinephrine And Serotonin Imbalance In The Locus Coeruleus In Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 10(3), 349-359.
Young, L., Warsh, J. J., Kish, S. J., Shannak, K., & Hornykeiwicz, O. (1994). Reduced Brain 5-HT And Elevated NE Turnover And Metabolites In Bipolar Affective Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 35(2), 121-127.

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