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Essay about Viral Diseases (AIDS)

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Literature Review-Viral Diseases (AIDS)
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Among the current fields of research in Biotechnology, research on drugs and vaccines targeting viral diseases such as HIV/AIDs has been of major importance given the high prevalence of these diseases across the world. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a type of virus that causes AIDS (Acquired Immune-deficiency Syndrome) (HIV and AIDS, n.d). The virus devastates the body’s defense mechanism, leaving a victim highly susceptible to opportunistic infections such as those caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. AIDS epidemic has presented a major challenge among researchers given the high rates of mutation and replication of HIV in host cells (ABU, DEAN, & JEFF, 2010). In addition, limited access to antiretroviral drugs in some of the most affected regions such as the Sub-Saharan Africa has slowed down the fight against the epidemic. AIDS is associated with other devastating diseases such as Kaposi Sarcoma and liver diseases which calls for more research efforts to find an effective vaccine. Apart from the increasing cases of HIV infection through sexual intercourse and drug injecting paraphernalia, mother-to-child transmission has also been cited as a major culprit (Majid, 2010). Despite a wide range of challenges facing the faculty of drug and vaccine development, considerable progress has been made. This paper presents the major challenges facing the area of viral disease research and specifically HIV/AIDS. It incorporates this discussion with a literature review of the research efforts that have been made towards tackling the challenges.
It is almost three decades since HIV and AIDS was discovered and the lives of millions of people have been claim...


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... saquinavir mesylate, and amprenavir (2001, p. 6).
This paper has discussed the various trends in HIV/AIDS infection and some of the major factors contributing to these trends. It has also highlighted the major challenges faced by HIV/AIDS research and some of the steps that have been made to overcome these challenges. It is noted that the fight against HIV/AIDS has been complicated by the complexity of the viral genome. In addition, development of drug resistance in viral strains has also posed a major set back in finding effective vaccines and drugs. Rampant spread of multi-drug resistant TB especially in the sub-Saharan Africa has also had a toll on HIV/AIDS research. However, researchers have applied different approaches including reverse transcriptase inhibitors and HIV protease inhibitors to develop a remedy for the pandemic.


















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