War of 1812


Length: 1289 words (3.7 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

War of 1812:
United States Wages War
     The American Revolution did not mark the end of tensions and hostilities between Britain and the newly independent United States. Neither country was pleased with the agreements made at the conclusion of the American Revolution. Americans were angry with the British for failing to withdraw their British soldiers from American territory and their unwillingness to sign trade agreements favorable to the United States.
     The division of land and the loss of the Ohio River Valley left Canada and Britain without access to the valuable fur trade. The Ohio River Valley was full of Amerindians that supported the British during the American Revolution
     This American resentment grew even more during the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15). Britain attempted to blockade the entire continent of Europe. France boycotted all British goods in any French territory; France later ordered their ports to any neutral ships that have visited a British port prior to arriving in a French port. Britain then ordered that all neutral ships must dock at a British port in order to acquire a license before traveling to Europe. Americans considered both countries’ actions a violation of their Neutral Rights; however, Britain had the more powerful navy and, therefore, dominated the seas. This created a deeper feeling of bitterness toward Britain.
     Neutral Rights violations did not stop with British and French maritime policies. Many sailors in the British Royal Navy had deserted and immigrated to the United States; they served as sailors on American merchant ships. The Neutral Rights clearly states points regarding naval boarding and seizure:
•     Belligerents have the right to search for war material on neutral shipping during time of war, but cannot deny the right of trade among neutrals.
•     Belligerent armies are not to enter or engage in hostilities in a neutral nation and are subject to internment if they do so.
Rumors of British Royal Navy ships searching, seizing and impressing British and American citizens from merchant ships ran wild throughout the United States. Impressment refers to the forcing of people into military service. In June 1807, all rumors were proved true; an American ship, the Chesapeake, was fired upon by a British vessel, the Leopard, after refusing to stop. This incident occurred well within U.S. territory.
     In 1810, the Non-Intercourse Act expired and Congress created a law that permitted trade with either France or England, whichever nation first promised to stop harassing American shipping.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"War of 1812." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Apr 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=95796>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Essay on The War of 1812 - Leading up to War: The American Revolution was not the end of the tension and hostility between Britain and the United States. Neither country was satisfied with the agreements made at the end of the American Revolution. Americans were angry with the British for failing to remove their soldiers from American territory and their unwillingness to sign trade agreements that were satisfactory to the United States. This American resentment continued to grow strengthen as Britain made attempts to block off the entire continent of Europe....   [tags: War of 1812 Essays]
:: 4 Works Cited
1441 words
(4.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Cause of An Insignificant War: War of 1812 Essay - The War of 1812 was one of the most insignificant wars in U.S. history which despite its failure to accomplish its strategic goals, the country showed the world that the U.S., military could stand up to the British on land. Bradford Perkins presented a short but brilliant account on the root cause of the war, by offering two thesis’s to support the claim that the land hunger, the loss of commerce, and national honor were the main causes. Right from the start Perkins argued that the war of 1812 was the product of resentment at various British actions which challenged American sovereignty on sea, and on land....   [tags: War of 1812, USA, history,] 2483 words
(7.1 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
The Effects Of The War Of 1812 Essay - The War of 1812 has always been a part of American history not very exiting to learn about for most Americans. It was a tumultuous time for the New Republic and some of the battles of the war shamed the new nation. The War of 1812 did not have the same glorious, honorable, and just cause of the American Revolution. The British made fools of the American people and even burned the Capitol and the White House, the centers of American politics, to the ground. However as shameful as the war was, it also had some good benefits and it demonstrated to Great Britain and the rest of the world that the United States of America was its own sovereign nation, and not some British Sphere of Influence....   [tags: History 1812 War] 871 words
(2.5 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
The War of 1812 Essays - The years Thomas Jefferson and James Madison took office were in many ways difficult for the United States. Several events which compounded upon each other lead to the American-British War of 1812 which ended officially in 1814 with the peace Treaty of Ghent. None of the issues which instigated war were really resolved and it would seem that for the US, the War of 1812 was just a series of failures and few triumphs that, in the end, cost the Natives more than anyone else. The war began with fired-up Americans seeking resolution to their deep-seated resentments toward the British; hard feelings which only festered during the French Revolutionary Wars....   [tags: American History]
:: 1 Works Cited
1054 words
(3 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The War of 1812 Essays - The War of 1812 The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain. This all started on June 12, 1812 and finished sometime in 1815. Many of the battles were on land but also there were a lot of sea battles. The United States declared War because there were many different disputes among the two countries. The main target for the British is the American ships (War of 1812, 2). The battle of Baltimore was one of the most important battles of the war. The U.S. Naval forces were under Commodore Macdonough....   [tags: History, The Battle of Baltimore] 1177 words
(3.4 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
The War of 1812 Essay - The War of 1812 “In view of the wants and needs of an infant United States (1783-1812), the War of 1812 was extremely successful in its results.” The War of 1812 is significant to United States history in a number of ways. The War, and our not losing it, reaffirmed American Independence. Second, the war showed the Americans that a stronger military was needed. It strengthened our isolation by giving us courage. The war also served to improve our economy as it stimulated manufacturing. Finally, the War of 1812 resulted in the death of the Federalist Party....   [tags: American History] 577 words
(1.6 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Essay on The War of 1812 - The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and England. Ending in 1815 with the Treaty of Ghent, the war did not accomplish any of the issues it was being fought over. For the US, the War of 1812 seemed to just be one failure after another. Although the military suffered great failure during the war, these were the direct consequence of the failure of the citizens to unite for the causes of the war. Because of these failures, it is quite valid to call the War of 1812 "America's worst-fought war"....   [tags: essays research papers] 1091 words
(3.1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
War of 1812 Essay - The War of 1812 The war of 1812, supposedly fought over neutral trading rights, was a very peculiar conflict indeed. Britain's trade restrictions, one of the main causes, were removed two days before the war started; the New Englanders, for whom the war was supposedly fought, opposed it; the most decisive battle, at New Orleans, was fought after the war ended. During the Napoleonic wars, Britain and France had disrupted US shipping, confiscated American goods, taking US seamen into the British navy, and both sides had blockaded each other's ports....   [tags: essays research papers] 476 words
(1.4 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Essay on War of 1812 - War of 1812 Answer the following: Is it valid to call the War of 1812 "America's worst-fought war". Was the cause of the failure essentially military, or was it an inevitable result of the political disunity over the war's purposes. Provide support for your stance and "discredit" the opposing view. Maximum of 2 pages/ 15 Points The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and England. Ending in 1815 with the Treaty of Ghent, the war did not accomplish any of the issues it was being fought over....   [tags: AP US History American] 1201 words
(3.4 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
War of 1812 Essay - The War of 1812 American frigates won a series of single-ship engagements with British frigates, and American privateers continually hurried British shipping. The captains and crew of the frigates constitution and United States became renowned throughout America. Meanwhile, the British gradually tightened a blockade around America's coasts, ruining American trade, threatening American finances, and exposing the entire coastline to British attack. U.S. forces were not ready for war, and American hopes of conquering Canada collapsed in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813....   [tags: essays research papers] 868 words
(2.5 pages)
Good Essays [preview]



Napoleon quickly declared that France would agree to these terms. Madison warned England that he would reinstate the embargo act, forbidding the U.S. to trade with England, unless the search-and-seizure policy ceased. Napoleon failed to comply and England continued seizing American shipping. These were considered great insults to the United States.
     Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison strived to resolve these issues without resorting to war; however, roughly 20 Democratic-Republicans, known as the War Hawks, had other plans. The War Hawks were outraged over the British impressments and the Orders in Council. They were certain that the only honorable response to these British actions was a declaration of war. By the time the new congress had met in 1811, members of the War Hawks had taken over key positions, which helped influence the direction of congressional debates. The War Hawked helped pass laws that increased military spending as well as financial legislation that prepared the U.S. financially for war. The majority of Congress opposed war but were confident that Britain would yield if they believed the U.S. was seriously considering war. Britain could not afford to war with the United States while still involved in the Napoleonic Wars.
     The War Hawks were western and southern lawyers as well as expansionists; they welcomed a war with England. They wanted to end British impressments and legitimize the attacks on the Indians, whom they believed were being supported by the British. The expansionists were looking to occupy Florida and Canada. Henry Clay was elected Speaker of the House. John C. Calhoun gained a seat on the Foreign Relations Committee. Congress declared war on Great Britain on June 18, 1812. Ironically, England had revoked its orders to search-and-seizure of American vessels on June 16, 1812, merely two days prior to the declaration of war.
     America soon discovered how inadequately prepared they were for war with embarrassing uncoordinated loses after attacking Canada. Detroit was surrendered in August of 1812, Battle of Queenston Heights was lost in October and American forces withdrew from Lake Champlain, in November, without engaging the enemy. The British and allied Indian forces were unexpectedly powerful.
     In 1813, America’s attempts to attack Canada were unsuccessful. U.S. forces regained control of Detroit when Oliver Hazard Perry’s fleet destroyed the British fleet on Lake Erie. The British allied Shawnee chief Tecumseh was killed shortly after, while the U.S. forces were attacking the retreating British army in the Battle of the Thames.
     After having defeated Napoleon in 1814, the British were able to supply and send into the conflict experienced troops and a large number of ships. American defeat looked certain by mid-summer, 1814. On August 24, 1814, the United States was at an all time low when British ships sailed into the Chesapeake Bay and troops marched into Washington. The British burnt most public buildings and President Madison’s house. The Capitol was also burnt to the ground. Instead of holding the city, the British marched into Baltimore and attacked. They encountered fierce resistance from the Maryland Militia; and Fort McHenry fired continuously in support until midnight. That was the night Francis Scott Key was inspired to compose “The Star-Spangled Banner.” In September, British troops marched from Canada into New York State; however, after Capt. Thomas Macdonough defeated a British fleet on Lake Champlain, the fearful British retreated into Canada. This was a decisive military victory for the U.S. England now realized the expense and difficulty that invading the U.S. by land would bring.
     Prior to December 1814, New England had been secretively trading with Great Britain; however, they had now become overtly hostile and in opposition to the war. The issue of succession was even discussed and rejected at the Hartford Convention; Federalist extremists also proposed amending the Constitution to abolish the three-fifths clause. They demanded that passing embargoes, admitting states, or declaring war should require a two-thirds vote instead of a simple majority. Also suggested was the president should be limited to one term and presidents from the same state could not serve successive terms. The main goal was to restrict federal power and remove the unfair advantage the southern states had under the Constitution. After the Convention, the Federalist Party began to look very unpatriotic; something the Federalist Party never recovered from. The War of 1812 was over before the Hartford delegates could make their recommendations.
     England sent troops by ship and met General Andrew Jackson in New Orleans. Jackson’s forces conflicted between 2,000 and 3,000 casualties, while only sustaining fewer than 80. Ironically, the Treaty of Ghent was signed two weeks prior to the Battle of New Orleans.
     It was not until February 18, 1815 that the Treaty of Ghent was finalized and proclaimed. When the Treaty of Ghent was written, there was no discussion of the issues of impressments, which were irrelevant since the Napoleonic Wars were over, or the Orders in Council. It was as if the war had never been fought. In effect, the only thing the Treaty of Ghent accomplished was to remove the First-Nation Indian State that acted as a barricade between the United States and Canada. Britain gained the rest assurance that hostilities between the U.S. and Canada would no longer exist.
     The War of 1812 ended with no one declaring victory—status quo ante bellum.


Return to 123HelpMe.com