Voltage: Ohms Law And Kirchhoffs Rules


Length: 857 words (2.4 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

Voltage: Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Rules


ABSTRACT
     Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's rules is fundamental for the understanding of
dc circuit. This experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to
so simple dc circuits.

INTRODUCTION
     In the theory of Ohm's Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as
illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V
represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a
electrical conductor and between which an electric current, I, will flow. The
constant, R, is called the conductor's resistance. Thus by the Ohm's Law, one
can determine the resistance R in a DC circuit without measuring it directly
provided that the remaining variable V and I is known.
     A resistor is a piece of electric conductor which obeys Ohm's Law and
has been designed to have a specific value for its resistance. As an extension
of the Ohm's Law, two more relationship can be drawn for electric circuits
containing resistors connected in series or/and parallel. For resistors
connected in series, the sum of their resistance is, RTOTAL=R1+R2+ ..... +Rn .
And for resistors connected in parallel, 1/RTOTAL==1/R1+1/R2+ ..... +1/Rn .
Complex dc circuit involving a combination of parallel and series resistors can
be analyzed to find the current and voltage at each point of the circuit using 2
basic rules formulated by Kirchhoff. 1) The algebraic sum of current at any
branch point in a circuit is zero. 2) The algebraic sum of potential difference,
V, around any closed loop in a circuit is zero. These rules and equations
provided by the Ohm's law and the Kirchhoff rule can be experimentally tested
with the apparatus available in the lab

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
     The apparatus used in the experiment includes a Voltmeter, an Ammeter,
some connecting wires and a series of resistors and light bulb with varies
resistance. This experiment could be divided into 5 sections which value of
voltage and current measured is noted in all sections for further calculation.
In the first section, in order to evaluate the reliability of Ohm's law, a dc
circuit was constructed as FIG 2 (on p.4 ) using a resistor with an expected
resistance at 2400W*120W. In the second section, we were instructed to
determine the internal resistance of the voltmeter. Two dc circuit were
constructed as FIG 1. and FIG 2. using a resistor with an expected resistance at
820000W*41000W. In the third section, we were asked to judge if the filament
of a light bulb obey Ohm's law, this was done by constructing a dc circuit as
FIG 1. with a light bulb instead of a resistor.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Voltage: Ohms Law And Kirchhoffs Rules." 123HelpMe.com. 23 May 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=95588>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Circuit Analysis Using Kirchoff's Voltage Law, Kirchoff's Current Law, and Ohm's Law - Have you ever wondered how or what makes an electric circuit function. A fact that many people don't realize is that almost every electric circuit can be analyzed with three very important laws. Those laws are Kirchoff's Current Law, Kirchoff's Voltage Law, and Ohm's Law. With some practice and the above stated laws in your tool bag, you can feel assured that you too can analyze electric circuits with the best of them. However, before we get into the nitty-gritty of defining and using these laws, I recommend that you first connect to the links that offer a little historical information about the two men that defined these fundamental laws for electric circuit analysis....   [tags: physics kirchoff kirchoffs law ohm ohms law] 807 words
(2.3 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Why do People Break the Rules? Essay - Whether you are a well-conditioned airplane pilot, an internationally acclaimed actress, or a law abiding commoner attempting his take at freedom, transgression is equally plausible for them all. However, each scenario’s appeal towards transgression is different, some are justified and others not. For example, in a well-developed functioning society where everyone has a say, transgression without a concrete reason is defined as misconduct, almost automatically being noted as unscrupulous by everyone....   [tags: transgression, rules, misconduct] 853 words
(2.4 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay on Powering A World; Kirchhoff's Voltage Law - I. Introduction In today’s society, the need to have an adequate supply of electricity to run everyday tasks is in greater demand than ever. Everyday we turn our lights in our homes on and off without really thinking about if there is enough electricity to power each and every light. Throughout this paper, we examine Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law the sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed network is zero [1]. Represented by the equation ΣV=0, which means v1+ v2+ v3+…+ vn=0 [2]....   [tags: electricity, circuit, experiments]
:: 2 Works Cited
1093 words
(3.1 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Stereotypes in Rules of Engagement - Sometimes I like to question myself why things are the way they are. Why some people act nice and some act aggressive when dealing with one another. It feels like people forget that they are who they are and most importantly humans. A lot of stereotypes have shaped and controlled the way we think about people. More stereotypes and negativities made us treat our dear friends unfairly. I believe everything that happens in society happens for a reason, and that our race, religion, and background make people think of us as either good or bad....   [tags: Rules of Engagement, stereotypes,] 681 words
(1.9 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay about Memorandum of Law - 1. RIGHT OF PRIOR NOTICE OF THE CHARGES TO BE USED AGAINST THE OFFENDER IN COURT Prior notices of charges against an offender in court are provided for in the Fourteenth Amendment of the Process and Equal Protection Clauses. The appellants argument that he was not notified of the charges held against him in reasonable time are covered by the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Process and Equal Protection Clause. Accordingly, the Fourteenth Amendment provides that advance notice that a criminal accusation will follow a substantive offence is not a requirement....   [tags: Law]
:: 1 Works Cited
880 words
(2.5 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Essay on Law and Ethics: Accountability - Scenario 3 Paul is a midwife manager working on a very busy postnatal ward. The ward is very short staffed and he feels that resources are overstretched resulting in midwives cutting corners, deteriorating standards of record keeping and women being sent home too early due to pressure on beds. Paul has reported this to his line manager but has been told that in the current economic climate there is nothing that can be done. Paul informs his line manager that he is planning to go to the media to express his concerns about care in the unit if conditions do not improve....   [tags: Law]
:: 8 Works Cited
2038 words
(5.8 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The Abortion Arguments of Cider House Rules Essay - The Abortion Arguments of Cider House Rules I am writing this essay on a Saturday evening, not with any real contemplation, or even planning. I am writing this because I was just minutes ago watching the movie Cider House Rules. I won't go into the plot of the movie, but, to explain my motivation for writing this, I will simply describe one portion of the movie. The scene at issue in my mind right now is one where a fourteen-year-old girl comes to the orphanage which is the setting for part of the movie....   [tags: Movie Cider House Rules Film Papers] 1103 words
(3.2 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay Customary International Law - According to Article 38 of the 1946 Statute of the International Court of Justice, the Court shall apply “international custom, as evidence of a general practice accepted as law” in its decisions (Kritsiotis 123). In other words, the International Court of Justice cites customs as a formal source of law. According to Roberto Unger, author of Law in a Modern Society, customary international law is best defined as “any recurring mode of interaction among individuals and groups, together with the more or less explicit acknowledgement of these groups and individuals that such patterns of interaction produce reciprocal expectations of conduct that out to be satisfied (Shaw 72-73)....   [tags: Law]
:: 10 Works Cited
1669 words
(4.8 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Rules on Formation of Contracts Essay - In order for a contract to be formed, there are various requirements. These are offer, acceptance, consideration, and the intention to create legal relations. A contract may also be terminated. There are two types of offer; specific and general. Specific offers are those made by one person or group of people who can choose to accept, and general offers are made to a generalised majority, such as in rewards and public advertisements. In the case of CARLILL v CARBOLIC SMOKE BALL, a general offer had been made, as it was a publicised advert....   [tags: Law] 1111 words
(3.2 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
The Struggle for Acceptance in The Cider House Rules Essay - The Struggle for Acceptance in The Cider House Rules      In The Cider House Rules, John Irving brings the orphan Homer Wells to vivid life in a rather unusual way.  Homer’s life and existence are part of a large symbolic link to the actual book itself.  Homer’s life as an orphan struggling for acceptance and to “Be of Use” is shadowed by The Cider House Rules struggle for acceptance in the mass literary market and its need to purvey its views on abortion.         After writing his first few books, Irving was left disappointed that although the literary critics embraced them, for the general masses his books fell on deaf ears.  (Hill 250) Unfortunately it is the general case tha...   [tags: Cider House Rules Essays]
:: 8 Works Cited
1705 words
(4.9 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]

Related Searches




Where in the forth section of
the experiment, we explored the ability of multimeter to measure resistance
directly and observed the difference in total resistance when two resistor at
270W*14W and 690W*35W were connected parallel or series together. And finally,
in the last section of this experiment, we were instructed to construct a
circuit like the one shown in FIG 3. and test the Kirchhoff's rules where R1, R2,
R3 are 270W*14W, 690W*35W and 2400W*120W respectively. The voltage and current
across and through each resistor was measured.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
     Results from section 1 as we saw on Graph 1, the calculated resistance
was constant at 2448W*147W and this was within the experimental error of the
actual resistance of the resistor and so proved the accuracy of Ohm's law.
Graph 2 and 3 summarized the differences in total resistance led to the finding
of the voltmeter's internal resistance in section 2. Since the calculated total
resistance , R1total , from circuit constructed as FIG 1. was, Resistor ,the
resistance of the resistor alone, on the other hand, the calculated total
resistance, R2total , from circuit constructed as FIG 2. was , 1/Rresistor+1/
Internal resistance , a combination of resistance of resistor and internal
resistance of the voltmeter. Though a series of mathematical calculation,
Internal resistance can be solved. Our calculated Internal resistance is
18.21MW*0.02MW which was much greater than the expected value of 10MW. This
error is most likely due to 1) the inaccurate value of given internal resistance
since it's unlikely that all voltmeter have the same internal resistance. 2)
Unstability of power supply causes reading error. Graph 4 shown that growing
light bulb did not obey Ohm's law. Its resistance increased as it became
brighter. The fact that resistance of a metal increases with temperature is
largely due to the heat, or kinetic vibration built up in metal interferes with
flow of electrons. In the fourth section of the experiment, the resistance
measured in parallel and series is 191W*1W and 950W*5W, very similar to the
calculated resistance which is 194W*13W and 960W*37W respectively. And in our
last section, to verify Kirchhoff's rules, I2+I3=3.70mA*0.04mA is approximately
equal to I1 which is 3.79mA*0.03mA. Also, Vbattery+V1+V2= Battery +V1+V3 where
both are equal to 0V.

CONCLUSION
     This experiment show that most dc circuit problems can be solve by Ohm's
law and Kirchhoff's rules which interested in voltage current and resistance.

REFERENCES

M.M.Sternheim, J.W.Kane. General Physics 2nd edition John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1991. Canada. p.434-435

F.Hynds. First Year Physics Laboratory Manual 1995-1996 University of Toronto

Bookstores. 1995. Toronto, Canada. p.74-76


Return to 123HelpMe.com