Thermodynamics


Length: 948 words (2.7 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to any form of energy. In thermodynamics, both the thermodynamic system and its environment are considered. A thermodynamic system, in general, is defined by its volume, pressure, temperature, and chemical make-up. In general, the environment will contain heat sources with unlimited heat capacity allowing it to give and receive heat without changing its temperature. Whenever the conditions change, the thermodynamic system will respond by changing its state; the temperature, volume, pressure, or chemical make-up will adjust accordingly in order to reach its original state of equilibrium. There are three laws of thermodynamics in which the changing system can follow in order to return to equilibrium.

In order for a system to gain energy the surroundings have to supply it, and visa versa when the system looses energy the surroundings must gain it. As the energy is transferred it can be converted form its original form to another as the transfer takes place, but the energy will never be created or destroyed. The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, basically restates that energy can’t be destroyed or created “as follows: the total energy of the universe is a constant.” All around the conservation of energy is applied. When gasoline burns in the engine of a car, an equal amount of work and heat appear as the energy is released. The heat from the engine warms its surroundings, the cars parts, the air, and the passenger area. The heat energy is converted into the electrical energy of the radio, chemical energy of the battery, and radiant energy of the lights. The change in the sum of all of the energies formed from the burnt gasoline would be equal to the “…change in energy between the reactants and products.” Biological processes, like photosynthesis, also follow energy conservation. The green plants convert the radiant energy emitted by the Sun into useful chemical energy, such as the oxygen that we breathe. The energy transferred between any surroundings and any system can be in the form of various types of work, chemical, mechanical, radiant, electrical, or heat.
     
The second law of thermodynamics is expressed as a cycle that “all processes occur spontaneously in the direction that increases the entropy of the universe (system plus surrounding).” Entropy, the number of ways the components of a system can be rearranged without changing the system, plays a major roll in the second law of thermodynamics.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Thermodynamics." 123HelpMe.com. 24 Nov 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=93661>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Understanding of Thermodynamics Essay - Understanding Thermodynamics Through the Concepts of Absolute Zero and the Distribution of Molecular Speeds Thermodynamics is the study of work, heat, and the energy of a system (NASA, 2010). To help explain in more detail the properties of thermodynamics are the laws of thermodynamics. The first law explains that a system’s internal energy can be increased by adding energy to the system or by doing work on the system (Serway & Vuille, 2012). An internal energy system is the sum of both its kinetic and potential energies....   [tags: conceptr of absolute zero, molecular distribution]
:: 3 Works Cited
981 words
(2.8 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
The First Law of Thermodynamics Essay - ... Refrigerators - The second main application of 1st Law in which the objective of a refrigerator is to lower the internal energy of a body at low temperature and transfer that energy to the higher temperature surroundings [3]. It requires work to do this. The medium for the energy exchange is a working fluid that circulates in a loop through a number of devices. These devices exploit to increase and eliminate energy from the working fluid. As the refrigerant circulates around the loop, its internal energy is alternately raised and lowered by a series of device....   [tags: heat engine, converstion, energy] 650 words
(1.9 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Thermodynamics Essay - Thermodynamics is basically concerned with heat transfer, energy transfer and conversion between heat and work and is also applied to describe phase change of a substance, such as condensation and evaporation. 1.1 Determination of steam quality Saturated water is water in the condition in which any amount of energy put into the water or absorbed by the water can result in water-steam, two phase mixture, formed. In this case, latent heat, enthalpy of evaporation, is referred to as the energy required to change water into steam....   [tags: Energy] 1011 words
(2.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Biology: The Thermodynamics of Protein-Protein Interactions Essay - There are various methods that have been developed over these years to study protein-protein interactions (PPIs). PPI plays a big role in the cell-signalling cascade; for instance, dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase by protein phosphatase-1 results in glycogen synthesis. To know whether a specific protein binds to its partner, for example, whether TFIIH interacts with TFIIE or TFIIF to complete the pre-initiation complex in transcription, different methods such as co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull down assays, yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectros...   [tags: cell, cytoplam, chemistry, antibody]
:: 19 Works Cited
1308 words
(3.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Thermodynamics Essay - Thermodynamics is the branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to any form of energy. In thermodynamics, both the thermodynamic system and its environment are considered. A thermodynamic system, in general, is defined by its volume, pressure, temperature, and chemical make-up. In general, the environment will contain heat sources with unlimited heat capacity allowing it to give and receive heat without changing its temperature. Whenever the conditions change, the thermodynamic system will respond by changing its state; the temperature, volume, pressure, or chemical make-up will adjust accordingly in order to reach its original state of equilibrium....   [tags: essays research papers] 948 words
(2.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although every body has a feeling of what energy is, it is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamics (power), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter....   [tags: physics science] 1241 words
(3.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Second Law of Thermodynamics Essay - The second law of thermodynamics involves the concept of entropy, an idea that explains disorder in our world. The concept of entropy associates useful matter and waste with low entropy and high entropy, respectively. In order to look at entropy, we must first define the system of interest. For the remainder of this paper, the system will be Earth. Many people believe that everything we use up can be recycled and reused if we can develop the appropriate technology. However, the Second Law makes it essentially impossible to achieve complete recycling....   [tags: Chemistry] 431 words
(1.2 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on First Law of Thermodynamics - First Law of Thermodynamics The first law of thermodynamics is shared with most of science; it is one of the fundamental principals that have shaped our understanding of the working world. TOTAL ENERGY OF THE SYSTEM AND IT'S SURROUNDINGS IS CONSTANT or ENERGY IS CONSERVED, Brings back that long established idea that nothing can be created or destroyed. How do we know this. This is an empirical law, which means that we know that energy is conserved because of many repeated experiments by scientists....   [tags: Papers] 968 words
(2.8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
What is Electrolycis? Chapter 1 of Research Essay - Chapter 2 2.1 OVERVIEW OF ELECTROLYSIS According to the Free Online Dictionary, electrolysis can be defined as chemical decomposition which is produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions. Although everybody has a feeling of what energy is; it is still difficult to give precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression of energy principle, and it asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property....   [tags: Thermodynamics, Current, Energy] 2728 words
(7.8 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Energy Demand Essay - 1. Introduction Due to the economic growth, the energy demand of the world increase every year. In the energy conversion process in power plants and small engines, energy efficiency is a key factor. The equipments with higher efficiency, the more work output. Therefore, a number of researches studied on thermodynamics of efficiency, irreversibility and exergy in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines were found during the last century. The thermal efficiency and the energy loss in the system are normally calculated from the 1st law of thermodynamics, while the maximum work output or exergy is characterized by the 2nd law of thermodynamics....   [tags: Environment, Thermodynamics] 587 words
(1.7 pages)
Good Essays [preview]

Related Searches




This law was derived from the Carnot Cycle. Carnot observed that the “…flow of heat from higher to lower temperatures” motivates steam engines, like the flow of a steam turns the mill wheel. His key insight demonstrated that the world was always active, whenever there is an energy disruption that is out of equilibrium the “thermodynamic force” of the world will spontaneously act to bring the system back to equilibrium or to keep the disruption to a minimum. All changes seem to be motivated by this law. Unlike the first law, the second law changes and motivates change in all real world processes and expresses time, where as in the first law there is no time, there is nothing to distinguish past, present, and future. The second law, with its “one way flow” or cycle, allows for the possibility of a past, present, and future to exist there are no limitations on entropy. For example, if a cup of hot coffee is placed in a refrigerator, a potential exists and a flow of heat is spontaneously produced from the cup to the air in the refrigerator until the temperatures are the same and all flow will stop. Once the flow of heat stops the entropy is at its maximum. In all physical processes entropy will increase; “in ideal reversible processes entropy remains constant. Thus, in the Carnot cycle, which is reversible, there is no change in the total entropy.” The cup of coffee itself experiences no net change in the entropy because it is returned to its original state at the end of the cycle. The entropy gained by the cold refrigerator is equal to the entropy lost by the hot coffee cup.
     
The third law of thermodynamics is very much related to the second law. The third law, also know as the Nernst heat theorem, states “a perfect crystal has zero entropy at a temperature of absolute zero.” Perfect means that all of the particles are flawless and there are no defects of any kind. A statement that is related to but independent from the second law, is that it is impossible to cool a system to absolute zero by any processes. Absolute zero can be approached very closely, but can never actually be reached. The state is defined as having zero entropy only if it is perfect. In the real world where not much if perfect, this zero entropy may never be reached, but curtain objects may come really close. When the object approaches absolute zero the particles have the minimum amount of energy at this point, they are basically no longer moving. As the object is heated the molecules begin to move again and the entropy rises. All the values of standard entropies of elements and compounds at 25°C are based upon this third law third law of thermodynamics.
     
In the real world all strives for balance or equilibrium, everything from a chemical compound to human beings. Through the laws of thermodynamics, the process of returning to the equilibrium or balance from a disorder is demonstrated. These laws pertain to all systems, from the formation of the Solar System to the inner working of every human heart.


Return to 123HelpMe.com