psychology


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Psychology – study of behavior and the mind
Dualism - the mind is spiritual and the body is physical and they are connected the mind can’t be studied
Introspection – Wundt Observers report their reactions TO light, colors, and time perception
Psychoanalysis – Freud’s theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume the importance of the unconscious process.
Behaviorism – scientific study of observable behavior
Cognition – the mental process thinking, knowing, and remembering.
Basic research – research that tests theories.
Applied research – research to solve practical human problems
Theory – describes predicts and explains a phenomenon.
Hypothesis – testable prediction, usually derived from theory
Laboratory research – in regulated environment and everything can be observed
Field research – in the real world
Self-report – asking people about their own thoughts and feelings
Behavioral observation – a form of research based on firsthand observation of a subject’s behavior.
Archival research – research that relies on preexisting records
Statistics – math used to analyze research data
Case studies – research that involves in depth personal observations
Surveys – research method that interviews or questions large groups of people
Epidemiology – study of distribution of an illness in a population
Random sample – a method of selection in which everyone has an equal chance of being chosen
Naturalistic observation – observation of behavior as it occurs naturally in real-world settings.
Correlation – a statistical measure of the extent to which two variables are associated
Scatterplot – a graph which has dots for X and Y and reveals direction and strength of their correlation.
Experiment – research in which an investigator changes and keeps constant the variables on randomly assigned subjects.
Independent variable – any variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment
Dependant variable – a variable that is being measured in an experiment
Experimental group – the group that is exposed to the independent variable
Control group – the group that isn’t exposed to the independent variable
Random assignment – random assignments to an experiment
Replication – the process of repeating an experiment to see if the results are reliable enough to be duplicated.
Generalizability – the extent to which a finding relates to, such as a certain population.
Meta-analysis – statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies.
Deception – misleading subjects to the true purpose of a study.
Informed consent – ethical requirement if one wants to participate in a study (of ones own free will)
Evolutionary psychology – principles of evolution to understand human social behavior
Behavioral genetics – genes and their affect on behavior

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Behavioral neuroscience – links among the brain, nervous system, and behavior.
Cross-cultural research – compares and contrasts people of different cultures.
Multicultural research – studies designed to compare and contrast racial and ethnic minority groups within cultures.

Chap 2
Central nervous system CNS– nerves in the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system PNS– nerves from the CNS to the body, consists of somatic and autonomic nerves
Somatic nervous system – transmits sight, sounds, tastes, smells, and pain, (from sensory organs to the CNS) and controls the bodys voluntary movements.

Autonomic – connects the CNS to the smooth involuntary muscles heart, lungs, stomach, liver.
Sympathetic NS – division of the autonomic NS that heightens arousal and energizes the body for action.
Parasympathetic NS – division of the autonomic NS that reduces arousal and restores the body to its pre-energized state.

Endocrine system – ductless glands that regulate growth, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior by secreting hormones.
Hormones – chemical messengers from endocrine glands into the bloodstream and go to various organs in the body.
Pituitary gland a tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamus
Neurons – nerve cells that are the building blocks of the NS
Sensory neurons – neurons that send messages from the senses, skin, muscles and internal organs to the CNS
Motor neurons – neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to muscles, glands, and organs.
Interneurons CNS neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputs.
When a thyroid gland produces too little hormone, people become easily tired and sensitive to cold. When the thyroid produces too much of the hormone, people tend to get nervous and irritable and lose weight.
Neurons send signals throughout the body as electrochemical signals. People estimate between 100 to 200 billion neurons in the brain glial cells are smaller than neuron cells but they outnumber the neurons 10 to 1 so most the brain is made up of glial cells.
Neural signal travel from dendrites through the (cell body) soma, down the axon, and into the axon terminals.
Action potential – electrical impulse that surges along the axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron. Threshold – level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse.
Soma- cell body of a neuron Dendrites – extensions from the cell body that receive incoming impulses
Myelin sheath tiny white layer of fat cells around the axon to insulate it.
CT – computerized tomography computer enhanced X-rays sent to the brain at 1 degree intervals of a 180 degree arc the computer turns it into an image its used in finding tumors and strokes
Positron emission tomography – PET glucose supplies the brain with energy and we can see how much glucose is used in a region. a tiny amount of radioactive glucose is injected into the brain the scanner reads the amounts consumed in different regions. Red, yellow, orange means high activity
Violet, blue, and green mean low activity.
MRI magnetic resonance imaging- a magnetic field aligns the brains atoms then a pulse of radio waves disorients the atoms, which give off detectable signals as they return to normal
FMRI – a faster version of an MRI

Brainstem medulla (swallowing, breathing, heart rate) damage= death, pons (sleep, arousal) damage= coma, reticular formation (sleep arousal and attention)
Basal ganglia and cerebellum – play an important with balance
Surrounding the brainstem Limbic system. Motivation and emotional responses.

Above the brainstem is the Limbic system
Thalamus sensory relay station directs neural traffic between the senses and cerebral cortex.
Amygdale – aggression center controls fear, anger and aggression
Hippocampus – plays a key role in new memories. Largest structure in the limbic system
Hypothalamus – helps regulate the autonomic nervous system glands, emotions, and basic drives
and regulates the body temperature, and activities of the autonomic nervous system, controls the endocrine system by triggering the release of hormones into the bloodstream, helps regulate emotions, fear and rage, and is involved with drives as hunger, thirst sleep, and sex.
Pituitary – in the amygdale in the limbic system controls hormones and growth

Cerebral cortex – 80% of the brain the outside higher-order mental processes it consists of two hemispheres and 4 lobes it can also be divided into areas based on function (1) sensory areas specialize in receiving sensory information. The somatosensory cortex receives info from touch receptors in the skin. (2) motor cortex controls the voluntary muscles (3) the association cortexcommunicates with sensory and motor areas and house higher mental processes two areas within associate with language. (4) Broca’s area directs speech and Wernicke’s area is involved in language comprehension.

Fechner said that each side of the brain has its own mind- the left controls the right the right controls the left they share info and connect at through the corpus callosum. Split brain the corpus callosum is severed - patients show that each side of the brain has a somewhat different version of experience.
Research has tried to find which side is lateralized (which side controls what) LEFT controls language the RIGHT is nonverbal the LEFT is analytical and the RIGHT is more holistic
Acetycholine, dopamine – neurotransmitter
Endorphin – body produced morphine
Phrenology bumps on the skull reveal psychological characteristics.
Somatosensory cortex – receives sensory info from touch receptors in the skin.
Motor cortex – sends impulses to voluntary muscles
Association cortex – areas of the brain that communicate with the sensory and motor areas and house the brain’s higher mental processes.
Plasticity – capacity to change as a result of experience.
Concussion – alteration in a persons mental state due to trauma to the head.
Neural graft – transferring healthy tissue from one animal to another.


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