Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Of Development: Young Adults


Length: 1457 words (4.2 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of
development. Erikson has theorized developmental stages of growth into tasks. Of
Eriksons' theoretical tasks, one task describes the theory of intimacy versus
isolation. This task theory can be examined using the normative crisis model.
The knowledge of developmental tasks of the young adult can be beneficial to the
nurse especially associated with their ability to relate to the young adult.

One of the stages in life is the young adult, which suggests significant changes
and an increase of responsibility. This stage of development is described as
between twenty and forty years, where "...the potential for furtherance of
intellectual, emotional and even physical development occurs". (Gething, 1995,
p.377). As people age the progress of the developmental stages can differ, so
they have formulated to assess the progression by using two principal crisis
models. The first, are the normative crisis model and the second includes the
timing of events crisis model. The normative crisis model has been powerful in
shaping the psychology of the developmental stages as it has allowed theorists
to imply that stages of development can follow an age related time sequence.
(Gething, 1995).

The normative crisis model suggests that human development has a built in
ground plan in which crisis as describe by Erikson are seen as a requirement
that must be resolved by the person before successful progression from one
developmental stage to another. Such achievement of this task crisis should
provide the young adult with the ability to challenge previous ideas held by the
adolescent about intimacy and isolation. This model is adapted for progression
of the tasks to follow the chronological age of the adult, while the related
social and emotional changes progress through a sequence that Erikson
characterises in to eight specific crisis tasks over the life span. (Kozier, erb,
blais & wilkinson, 1995.).

The second crisis model depends upon the timing of events and is not dependant
upon resolution of crisis or a ground plan, but stresses the importance of each
event that occur in the young adults life. Life events that proceed as expected
will encourage development, where as life events that are unexpected can result
in anxiety and a slow progression of development. (Gething, 1995.).

The young adult according to Erikson's theory of personality should be
progressing through the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus isolation. The
tasks for this stage of life consist of courting and selecting a "mate",
marriage and associated choices, e.g. children and monogamous relationship,
career choices and lifestyle changes and furthering intellectual abilities to
accommodate choices. (Turner & Helms, 1987.).

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Of Development: Young Adults." 123HelpMe.com. 30 Apr 2017
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=64474>.
Title Length Color Rating  
Essay on The Recent Issue of Young Adults Living at Home - The number of young adults living at home has consistently increased since the recession, despite a seemingly improving economy (Shah, 2013). According to Lisa Wade, an associate professor at Occidental College in Los Angeles, CA, approximately 17% of young adults amid the ages of 25 and 44 still live at home (Wade, 2013). There are several unrelated issues that contribute to this staggering number. When trying to live out on your own; there is much to consider. If you are living alone, then all the bills would be solely your responsibility....   [tags: Education, Employment, Young Adults]
:: 13 Works Cited
949 words
(2.7 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay on Factors of Development in Adolescent Males - There are many factors that contribute to determining how a young person will develop into a mature adult. This research paper will discuss three of those factors and how they can negatively affect the development of an adolescent male - sexual or physical abuse, self-esteem, and pubertal timing. By the end it will be clear what influences an adolescent’s mental, emotional and physical health, and what makes a male feel capable of being secure in their own skin. The world we live in focuses primarily on females who have been physically, emotionally or sexually abused as children....   [tags: Biology, Development, Mature Adults] 1086 words
(3.1 pages)
Good Essays [preview]
Erikson’s End Stage of Development Essay - As human beings age, according to Erik Erikson, they go through developmental stages that help to create and transform their personalities. If needs are met and the ego is gratified, then the individual is able to move on to the next challenge. Onward they march in life and in stage until they find the end level: integrity versus despair. This has been categorized as adults 65 years and older by Erikson. Here, people are to reminisce and judge their lives in terms of merit or disappointment. Erikson himself had a lot to comb through in his later years....   [tags: Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development]
:: 5 Works Cited
1290 words
(3.7 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Erik Erikson's Stages of Development Essay examples - Eric Erikson was one of the most famous theorists of the twentieth century; he created many theories. One of the most talked about theories is his theory of psychosocial development. This is a theory that describes stages in which an individual should pass as they are going through life. His theory includes nine stages all together. The original theory only included eight stages but Erikson‘s wife found a ninth stage and published it after his death. The nine stages include: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs....   [tags: Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development]
:: 4 Works Cited
3327 words
(9.5 pages)
Research Papers [preview]
Adolescent Theory and Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development Essay - Life is never easy for anyone, however it is particularly harder during the time of adolescence. The period in which the person is no longer considered a child, but not quite an adult. Erik Erikson had many ideas about this period, and he focuses on the term identity diffusion. Rebecca Fraser-Thill describes this when she writes: “Identity diffusion is one step in the process of finding a sense of self. It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one....   [tags: intimacy, identity diffusion, adults]
:: 8 Works Cited
1234 words
(3.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Eric Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development Essay - According to Eric Erikson, there are eight different social stages a person must go through as they mature. Each stage has a positive characteristic and a negative characteristic. If positive characteristics are fulfilled then their future will look good. So to what extent can the lack of reinforcement to the positive characteristics of Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development effect you. The effects can be quite horrifying. Especially if all of the stages the only characteristics fulfilled are the negative aspects....   [tags: Erikson’s Eight Stages of Development] 1431 words
(4.1 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Analysis of Moral Development in Young Children Essay - This paper is written to examine various influences on the moral development of young children. Specifically, the paper will speak to the definition of moral development, the views held by educators Piaget and Kohlberg on this area of development in young children and the application of moral development theories by Early Childhood Educators. Theories posited by Sigmund Freud with regards to the psychological development of children in the early childhood arena will be discussed as well. Suggestions for parents on supporting the moral development of their children will also be addressed....   [tags: Child Development ]
:: 6 Works Cited
1499 words
(4.3 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Essay on Anxiety in Young Adults - Have you ever felt like you were in a panic or fearful of something, if so then you are facing the common symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety in young adults is a great topic to lean towards due to this time in age where technology and social media is a factor. Many anxiety disorders in young adults are social phobias, generalized anxiety disorders (GAD), and panic attacks. We are currently in the twenty-first century and young adults are feared by many things called social phobias. For example, social phobias would be public speaking, which many people dread and some young adults fear this much more than others....   [tags: social phobias, depression]
:: 9 Works Cited
1241 words
(3.5 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Stuck: Young Adults Battling Depression - Stuck: Young Adults Battling Depression Another day sleeping awaywith the minutes slowly passing staring at the ceiling wondering how to escape the outside world. “God I’m up,” said Dominik Zakrzewski, 20 of Queens, N.Y. “Sometimes I dreaded lifting my legs out of bed.” He used to prolong getting up and thought of things he could do to stay in solitude. Zakrzewski, who was diagnosed at the age of 18, is one of many young adults who suffer from depression. Various studies over the years have shown that the number of adolescents and young adults who have depression is steadily rising....   [tags: Journalism Essays] 2031 words
(5.8 pages)
Powerful Essays [preview]
Young Adults and Cigarette Smoking Essay - Young Adults and Cigarette Smoking Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer and many other illnesses. At least one out of five death in American society caused by disease directly related to cigarette smoking. The overall smoking prevalence in the United States has been reduced considerably over the past 20 years; however, there have been only minimal reductions in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults. Among college students, the prevalence of use of cigarettes is still about 35%....   [tags: Papers] 846 words
(2.4 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]

Related Searches




Some of the personal abilities
that the young adult must employ include decision making, career planing,
understanding nature of increased responsibility and being able to accommodate
greater demands of self.

Erikson's theory describes the crisis of the young adults developmental stage
being intimacy versus isolation. This indicates the maturity of psychosocial
development from the prior stage of crisis of adolescence. Erikson's theory has
been adapted and modified from Freud's psychosocial theory to incorporate the
entire life span, defining eight crises each with various tasks. (Kozier, et al
1995). Erikson believes that "...the greater the task achievement, the healthier
the personality of the person", (Kozier, et al, 1995, P.572.) thus suggesting
from his theory that failure to achieve these tasks, will result in the
inability to proceed to the next task or crisis. Erikson believed that failure
to achieve any given task could lead to a detrimental effect on the ego.
(Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980.)

One of the tasks of the theory of intimacy versus isolation, relates to courting
and selecting a mate for marriage. Courting usually starts prior to this
developmental stage and may continue for an undesignated period. The
continuation of courtship is entirely reliant on the individual but the
development of issues such as independence and sharing associated within a
serious relationship should be initiated. A result of this task achievement
should be that the individual has developed or learned skills that are essential
to relationships, e.g. sacrifice, compromise and commitment. This task is
considered a major issue that helps the individual to conclude their own
feelings on intimacy with another. (Gething, 1995.).

The union of marriage is dependant on the partners involved as to the reason to
extend a long-term relationship to marriage. Some reasons for marriage can
consist of a long-term commitment to sharing, companionship, monogamous
relationship and a desire to start a family. These characteristics symbolise
dedication, expression and development of the individual's identity. Marriage is
an opportunity to overcome Erikson's negative theory of isolation and to
continue through intimacy in a positive manner. (Turner & Helms, 1987).

These issues of marriage and courtship indicate a sense of achievement between
identity and intimacy as Erikson stresses it is important as "...before one can
achieve intimacy, it is essential to have a sense of identity, which should be
achieved in adolescence" (Gething, 1995, P.401). As this sense of identity and
intimacy develop the young adult should also be generating their own sense of
moral values and ethics related to relationships. (Gething, 1995,P.401). Erikson
also considers marriage a mark of an adult and constantly refers to the
developmental importance of identity. With marriage, a change in "normal"
lifestyle occurs, leading to greater demands, responsibilities and development
of identity. (Gething, 1995.).

The changes in a lifestyle from an adolescent to a young adult lead to
adjustment of situations, e.g. living arrangements, change of school to a
career/job and coping abilities, e.g. financial responsibilities. The
establishment of this new identity can be stressful and demanding on the young
adult. These new changes require a considerable degree of maturity, which
Erikson believes will promote physical and psychological achievement. One change
in lifestyle leads to a new task, career preparation. This is an important part
of a positive aspect of identity that plays a major role in individual
development. (Rapoport, 1980).

Career preparation and achievement assist the individual to achieve further
personal and developmental goals. The ability to maintain a job gives the young
adult financial independence and they are now at a stage where they can relate
establishment of themselves as a worthwhile and significant person to their
choice of careers. (Turner & Helms, 1987.).

Career development fuses with many other facts of adult life. Erikson believes
the gender of a person affects the eventual career that the young adult, the
abilities, interest and personality will also play a role in the choice of
career. The consequences of career choice are often voluntarily but can be
forced upon for any number of reasons, e.g. parental advice. (Gething, 1995.).

The young adults choice in career gives identity, self-respect, pride, values
and ideas about the world. According to Erikson this gives the individual a
healthier personality if they achieve set goals. The young adults first choice
of career may not be the best choice, "...young adults are less satisfied with
their jobs, and are more likely to change later in life". (Rapoport & Rapoport,
1980, P.393). In this task the young adult discovers that work is a consequence
of life, and is bound tight with their ego and self-image. Erikson expresses
that if they are not successful with this task, the ego will be affected.
(Gething, 1995).

The nurse uses this information and knowledge about the young adult's
developmental tasks to assess the domains of health. These domains can include
physical, psychological and emotional and then intervene according to the
positive and negative aspects of their health. Assessing and intervention is for
the well being of the young adult. To maintain the autonomy and sense of
achievement of the young adult the nurse should suggest positive alternatives as
appropriate. Erikson describes the development of depression, anger and failure
or delay of intimacy as a result of dysfunctional development. (Gething, 1995).
As the nurse can assist with advice and positive encouragement, he or she must
also accept the decision made by the young adult, "...assisting with necessary
adjustments relating to health."(Kozier, Erb et al, 1995, P.843).

The young adult period is marked with many changes to the life of a person. The
decision related to career paths, development of relationships with peers and
romantic relationships all places a lot of pressure on young adults. Erikson's
psychosocial theory of development describes intimacy versus isolation to be the
major issue for the young adult in personality development for the person in the
twenty to forty years age ranges. In the tasks of this stage the young adult
must resolve the issues to achieve growth and pass on to the next stage of
development. The nurse should posses the ability to asses the development of the
young adult and appropriately provide support and encouragement.


Return to 123HelpMe.com