Essay Color Key

Free Essays
Unrated Essays
Better Essays
Stronger Essays
Powerful Essays
Term Papers
Research Papers




Child development research

Rate This Paper:

Length: 5825 words (16.6 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Red (FREE)      
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


     The article entitled An Analysis of Schema Theory and Learning Theory as Explanations for Variance in Adolescent Adjustment to Divorce is a research done with adolescents to see how well a child and his or her parents adjust to divorce. The researchers are trying to find a way to help children deal with divorce. The researchers are trying to see if there is a connection between a child?s age and their sex that affects the way they adjust to divorce. After trying to see if these two factors are connected, researchers then also study to see if a child?s relationships with his or her parents also have a role in the child?s adjustment. This research was done to help understand if schema theory had something to do with the children?s adjustment when it came to divorce. With all the possibilities, the researchers wanted to narrow it down using the schema theory. The schema theory is said to be a way of thinking, and not wanting to change what you know.
     Another article entitled Assessments of Trust in Intimate Relationships and the Self Perception Process is about trust and how every health human relationship should have it. This article tells about how trust is what gets two people to work together, side by side, and help make their bond stronger.
     Holmes and Rempel looked at the different issues people had with trusting their partner. The participants had to go through a couple of different tests to see how trust issues interfered with the relationships they shared. This research goes over how an individual gains trust and how certain factors can affect it. An individual?s personal experiences could even affect a relationship they share. They may have gotten traumatized before. This also shows how one person in a relationship trusts their partner, and then how another set of participants in another relationship have problems.

Article 1: Abstract

An Analysis of Schema Theory and Learning Theory as Explanations for
Variance in Adolescent Adjustment to Divorce

Learning theory and schema theory were used as different reasons for how adolescents deal with divorce. Different types of questionnaires were given to children by the students at Stellenbosch University. The adolescents who participated in the study took Antonovsky?s Life Orientation Questionnaire, Hudson?s CAM and CAF questionnaires, a bunch of questions that measured how the adolescents felt about divorce, and questions about the adolescent?s life. The schema theory was not found as the main reason, the results stated very little proof of the way an adolescent acted as being the means by which the adolescent dealt with his or her relationship with its parents, or the how the child adjusted to the divorce. The learning theory on the other hand did serve as a positive factor; there was a good connection between the learning theory and the parent-adolescent relationship, and the adolescent?s adjustment. To inform parents about divorce, and how much of an impact it can have on an adolescent, the parent must know that the learning theory can have different impacts on their adolescent?s adjustment. Families going through divorce can actually use this information as a way of dealing with it.

Article 1: Literateture Review

     Researchers are worried about high divorce rates. There are many things out there to help a child deal with their parent?s divorce, there is however a lack of help for adolescents who are dealing with divorce. Both children and adolescents can experience problems when dealing with divorce. Researchers feel that this topic must be studied more.
     There are two variables that have been found after studies on children and adolescents who have gone through a divorce with their parents were done. The first variable is the age which the child was when the divorce happened, and whether the child was male or female. The results from these variables have caused many problems, and to date there are no same patterns.
     A major factor that researchers have identified is the relationship the child shares with the parents. The way a child adjusts to divorce is greatly impacted by the parent-child relationship. This relationship a child shares with his or her parents is a way for culture to be passed on, and a child?s relationship with the mother helps the child?s well being, as opposed to the father?s relationship, where there is no such impact.
This study was done to see if the learning theory and schema theory could tell researchers why there are so many different ways a child can adjust to divorce.
     The schema theory is when a person believes that things happened a certain way and don?t want to change what they know. They feel this way about the situation, and about people. This study tried to change how, and what people think. If family relationships are like this, a child who has a good relationship with his or her parents will see a divorce as a good thing. It will be seen as good resolution to an ultimate problem.
The learning theory is when a child sees what is going on and imitates the behavior they see. The child will imitate their parent?s actions because the parent is the role model. So if there is a good relationship between the child and the parent, thy child will see how well the parent has adjusted and will imitate the parent?s behaviors.

Article 1: Methods
Methods
     To get a teenager?s view on the different things that affect the way they respond to divorce, a cross sectional co relational research was made up. Teenagers who come from intact and divorced families filled out self report questionnaires.
Participants
     293 students studying psychology and economics at Stellenbosch University were part of the study. 39 out of the 293 students participating had divorced parents. 38 participants who have married parents had their answer sheets picked to be used in the research. Out of the 38 with married parents, 20 were male and 18 were female. Out of the 39 participants with divorced parents, 16 of them were female and 23 were male. The age range of these participants at the time of their parent?s divorce was between the ages of 2 and 20 years old. The ethnicity of the participants was not necessary, therefore it was not asked.
     The ratio within first year students of African Americans to Caucasians was 1 African American for every 3 Caucasians at Stellenbosch University in 2003.
Measures
     Four different questionnaires were given to the participants to complete. To get the biographical information the researchers needed to conduct the experiment, a biographical questionnaire was given to the participants was also given.
     Mr. B. Hanekom allowed the researchers to use Hudson?s ?Child?s Attitude Toward Mother/Father? questionnaire. A 7-point scale was used to rate the how the subjects felt about different statements which reflected how they felt toward their mother/fathers. The questionnaire has 25 questions, which allowed the participants to score between 25-175. There were high alpha reliabilities ranging from 0.93 to 0.97.
     Saboga Nunes allowed the use of Antonovsky?s (1979) ?Life Orientation Questionnaire?. This had another 7-point scale, and again the participants were asked to rate their lives. This questionnaire had 29 questions which made the possible scores range from 29-203. This test also had high reliabilities with alpha values beginning at 0.84 to 0.93.
     To determine the participants? feeling towards divorce, a questionnaire with six questions, by Amato and Rogers (1999) and Booth and Edwards (1989) was also used in this research. This test was only a 4-point scale, and the participants had to give scores on statements about divorce. 6-24 is the possible range in score. The reliabilities associated with this test were from 0.63 to 0.67.
     Some things on the questionnaires had to reverse scored, but none of the biographical questionnaire.
Procedure
     Before the research could begin, the permission of Stellenbosch University was received so that the students could be participants in the research. The researchers went into the classrooms of the Psychology and Economic students, and during the last twenty minutes of the class asked if anyone would like to take part in their study, and for those that said yes were given the opportunity to complete their questionnaires. The participants were informed of the research?s purpose, what it meant to take part in the research, and why it was important for the participants to give honest answers. Everyone in both of the classes wanted to be a part of the research, they were given an opportunity to leave if they did not want to participate, but no one left. After the participants finished their questionnaires, they handed them to the conductors of the research. All of the data that was received was then put onto and Excel data file, so that a statistical analysis could be completed using Statistica (Stat Soft, 2003). Using questions that had answers which were already written out and just needed to be circled, biographical data was easily collected. The answers to the questions asked was then coded and put into Excel. The answers to the other questions were also put into Excel. Keeping in mind the reverse scoring that occurred, the score of the questionnaires were totaled using Excel.

Article 2: Results & Discussion
Method
     This experiment included students from the United States who are in a heterosexual relationship. The design of this experiment included 2 males and females subjects, 2 (relationship orientation: high/ low exchange), 2 (actor/ recipient), 4 (type of behaviors: trusting with mirror, trusting with no mirror, trusting and anonymity with no mirror, and irrelevant with no mirror). The people who take part of this research are first put through an orientation which determines how different the individuals are out side of the relationship in a community like setting. The subjects are then randomly chosen and put into 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to trusting or irrelevant behaviors with or without a mirror. The 2nd group was taught with or with out a mirror, that their partners had shown trusting or irrelevant behaviors.
     Each person from each couple was exposed to the same condition. After being exposed to the same condition, the subjects who were part of the study then took measurements of trust.
Participants
64 students who attend psychology, human development, and human sexuality classes at the University of Maine volunteers to participate in this study. When these students volunteered they were told that this study was about relationships and their partners needed to a part of it, even if they did not attend the University of Maine. There were 128 people in the research. Their ages varied from 18 to 47 years old. These couples had been in a relationship with one another between 1 to 96 months. 96% of the participants in this study were Caucasian.

Measure
     Personality inventories were completed by the subjects as a group. After the inventories, the couple signed up to come back for another session. The ?Relationship Orientation Scale? by Zak and Gold was one of the tests which were given during this study. Another test given was the Murstein, Wadlin and Bond?s Exchange Orientation Scale which shows what kind of exchange or non exchange behaviors happen within a couple.
     The participants gave their responses to the Relationship Orientation Scale using a 19 point scale, with one being the strongly disagree, and 19 to be strongly agreeing. An example of one of the question on the scale was, ?I usually remember if I owe my partner a favor, or if he/she owes me a favor.? This is an example of an exchange.
Procedure
     The couples then returned for their second sessions. When they returned they met with both a female and male researcher. The researchers then went on with the study, but first they had to separate the males and the females. After each couple had been split up by gender, they were brought into laboratory rooms by researchers of the same gender.
     Actors in the trusting behavior conditions followed the following information that was given to them by the researchers. (See attached next page.)
     The conductors of the research waited for the subjects and how they felt about the information given. The results were all similar, no one allowed their significant other to dance with someone they did not know. The researchers then left the room and told the subjects that there were going to inform their significant other of their response.
Recipients in trusting behavior conditions.
     The subjects in this group were given the same information as the previous group, only this time the roles were switched around. In this group, the partners had been asked if they would let they present person who is participating dance with the stranger. The researchers then left them in the room for a little bit. The researchers then returned and told the subjects that their significant other did not care of the participants danced, even though they never did ask their significant partners.
     The partners who were still in the separate room were then asked to finish the dependent measures. The trust scale and the Dyadic trust scale.
Trusting behavior and anonymity condition.
     The way this experiment was set up was the same way as it was for the actors and the recipients. The only thin they added was some instructions before the dependent measures were completed. (See attached page for instructions given.)
Actors and recipients in the irrelevant behavior condition.
     The procedure for these groups was identical to the group of actors and recipients who were dealing with trusting behaviors. The only difference was that the researchers told this group of participants that information was needed from one member of the couple who listened and then danced with another member of the opposite gender.
Self-awareness manipulation.
     The actors and recipients got an increased amount of self awareness which included another trusting behavior situation which included a mirror. The subjects sat in a room with boxes and folders in front of a big mirror and let each other know that they conductor of the experiment left their supplies in that specific lab room.
     The experiment without a mirror was the same as the experiment which had a mirror, except for the fact that the mirror had been turned so that the only thing showing was they back. The subjects were told in this situation that another conductor of the research had left his supplies in that lab room.
Dependent measures.
     Rempel, Holmes and Zanna?s (1985) 17-item Trust Scake was first completed by all of the people participating in the research. The 7-point scale was changed to a 19-point scale, where (1) is the strongly disagree, (10) is neutral, and (19) is strongly agree. The scale had been changed to give an opportunity for high variance in the results. After this Trust Scale had been administered, the subjects were given the Lazeler and Hutch?s (1980) Dyadic Trust Scale, which is an eight point scale where (1) is strongly disagree, and (7) is strongly agree.
Debriefing.
     The subjects were asked about the way they reacted to the experiments after they finished the dependent measures. The subjects said that they felt the dancing or listening to music part of the experiment would actually happen. None of the subjects ignored the reasons of the manipulations. The subjects were told that they would not be asked to dance or listen to music. After a long debriefing, they were informed that the researchers just wanted to know if trusting behaviors had an effect on trust. They were informed that letting your significant other dance with someone from the opposite sex is a trusting behavior. The subjects were told that in the group of actors, the subject?s significant others were never aware of their choices, as it was also the same in the recipient groups, the subject?s significant others were not asked if they would let them dance or listen to music. To end the experiment, the conductors of the research said they were sorry for and inconvenience they caused them, answered any questions anyone might have, and then thanked them. None of the subjects reported anything negative about the research they participated in.

Article 2: Abstract
Assessments of Trust in Intimate Relationships and the Self Perception Process

In an intimate relationship, a partner?s actions often determines the level of trust a couple shares. Sometimes however, the problem of trust can lie within a person?s personal issues, and cause issues one has with trust. The community, heterosexual couples, and students from a university in the U.S. were introduced to high levels of self awareness about trust and either had trusting behaviors, or non-trusting behaviors. The people participating in the study were able to figure out their level of trust. Knowing about their self awareness, and having and orientation with the community has helped to better the people in the study with trust in their intimate relationship.

Article 2: Literateture Review
     Interpersonal trust is a very important part of a healthy human relationship. Believing in another person helps to create good behaviors for people who work together or are in an intimate relationship. Holmes was the only one who had a model that showed the path which trust follows.
     Holmes and Rempel saw that different people had different issues with trust, but they did say that trust issues are based on relationships people have. People who are in an intimate relationship and trust their partner rely on them to care and help them with their needs.
     Holmes and Rempel stated that trust in an intimate relationship go through three different stages; the partners observe one another?s actions, dependability- after watching their partner they decide whether or not they can depend on this person, and the last stage is faith- people being to feel secure about their relationship and start to wonder where it is headed.
     When people develop trust through a self perception process can also be caused by situational variables. When someone has an increased objective self awareness, it affects the self perception process in two ways. The first way is when someone has an increased level of self awareness which is brought on by high levels of attitude behavior consistency. The second way self perception is affected is when an individual who is being objective and aware of themselves, see themselves the way that other people see them.
     Not only can self awareness affect the way people see their intimate relationship, but also a person?s individual differences affects the development of trust. Individuals, who concentrate on their partner?s needs, and not on the sharing of needs and exchanges in the relationship, are happy with themselves and their behaviors. People who got communally oriented do not have to worry about trust to make sure that their partner?s answer to their trusting behaviors. Communally oriented people do look at their partner?s behaviors and they do so to figure out if their partner?s behaviors will give them some information. People who get a high score on the communal orientation care more about their partner?s needs and did not care whether or not their partners were concerned about their needs.
     Even if self perception theory says that a person?s own behaviors cause internalized attitude change, it also known that the way an individual?s behaviors may lead to a difference in publicly reported beliefs only.

Article 2: Methods

     This experiment included students from the United States who are in a heterosexual relationship. The design of this experiment included 2 males and females subjects, 2 (relationship orientation: high/ low exchange), 2 (actor/ recipient), 4 (type of behaviors: trusting with mirror, trusting with no mirror, trusting and anonymity with no mirror, and irrelevant with no mirror). The people who take part of this research are first put through an orientation which determines how different the individuals are out side of the relationship in a community like setting. The subjects are then randomly chosen and put into 2 groups. The 1st group was exposed to trusting or irrelevant behaviors with or without a mirror. The 2nd group was taught with or with out a mirror, that their partners had shown trusting or irrelevant behaviors.
     Each person from each couple was exposed to the same condition. After being exposed to the same condition, the subjects who were part of the study then took measurements of trust.
Participants
64 students who attend psychology, human development, and human sexuality classes at the University of Maine volunteers to participate in this study. When these students volunteered they were told that this study was about relationships and their partners needed to a part of it, even if they did not attend the University of Maine. There were 128 people in the research. Their ages varied from 18 to 47 years old. These couples had been in a relationship with one another between 1 to 96 months. 96% of the participants in this study were Caucasian.

Measure
     Personality inventories were completed by the subjects as a group. After the inventories, the couple signed up to come back for another session. The ?Relationship Orientation Scale? by Zak and Gold was one of the tests which were given during this study. Another test given was the Murstein, Wadlin and Bond?s Exchange Orientation Scale which shows what kind of exchange or non exchange behaviors happen within a couple.
     The participants gave their responses to the Relationship Orientation Scale using a 19 point scale, with one being the strongly disagree, and 19 to be strongly agreeing. An example of one of the question on the scale was, ?I usually remember if I owe my partner a favor, or if he/she owes me a favor.? This is an example of an exchange.
Procedure
     The couples then returned for their second sessions. When they returned they met with both a female and male researcher. The researchers then went on with the study, but first they had to separate the males and the females. After each couple had been split up by gender, they were brought into laboratory rooms by researchers of the same gender.
     Actors in the trusting behavior conditions followed the following information that was given to them by the researchers. (See attached next page.)
     The conductors of the research waited for the subjects and how they felt about the information given. The results were all similar, no one allowed their significant other to dance with someone they did not know. The researchers then left the room and told the subjects that there were going to inform their significant other of their response.
Recipients in trusting behavior conditions.
     The subjects in this group were given the same information as the previous group, only this time the roles were switched around. In this group, the partners had been asked if they would let they present person who is participating dance with the stranger. The researchers then left them in the room for a little bit. The researchers then returned and told the subjects that their significant other did not care of the participants danced, even though they never did ask their significant partners.
     The partners who were still in the separate room were then asked to finish the dependent measures. The trust scale and the Dyadic trust scale.
Trusting behavior and anonymity condition.
     The way this experiment was set up was the same way as it was for the actors and the recipients. The only thin they added was some instructions before the dependent measures were completed. (See attached page for instructions given.)
Actors and recipients in the irrelevant behavior condition.
     The procedure for these groups was identical to the group of actors and recipients who were dealing with trusting behaviors. The only difference was that the researchers told this group of participants that information was needed from one member of the couple who listened and then danced with another member of the opposite gender.
Self-awareness manipulation.
     The actors and recipients got an increased amount of self awareness which included another trusting behavior situation which included a mirror. The subjects sat in a room with boxes and folders in front of a big mirror and let each other know that they conductor of the experiment left their supplies in that specific lab room.
     The experiment without a mirror was the same as the experiment which had a mirror, except for the fact that the mirror had been turned so that the only thing showing was they back. The subjects were told in this situation that another conductor of the research had left his supplies in that lab room.
Dependent measures.
     Rempel, Holmes and Zanna?s (1985) 17-item Trust Scake was first completed by all of the people participating in the research. The 7-point scale was changed to a 19-point scale, where (1) is the strongly disagree, (10) is neutral, and (19) is strongly agree. The scale had been changed to give an opportunity for high variance in the results. After this Trust Scale had been administered, the subjects were given the Lazeler and Hutch?s (1980) Dyadic Trust Scale, which is an eight point scale where (1) is strongly disagree, and (7) is strongly agree.
Debriefing.
     The subjects were asked about the way they reacted to the experiments after they finished the dependent measures. The subjects said that they felt the dancing or listening to music part of the experiment would actually happen. None of the subjects ignored the reasons of the manipulations. The subjects were told that they would not be asked to dance or listen to music. After a long debriefing, they were informed that the researchers just wanted to know if trusting behaviors had an effect on trust. They were informed that letting your significant other dance with someone from the opposite sex is a trusting behavior. The subjects were told that in the group of actors, the subject?s significant others were never aware of their choices, as it was also the same in the recipient groups, the subject?s significant others were not asked if they would let them dance or listen to music. To end the experiment, the conductors of the research said they were sorry for and inconvenience they caused them, answered any questions anyone might have, and then thanked them. None of the subjects reported anything negative about the research they participated in.

Article 1: Results
     Schema theory suggested that the behaviors toward divorce would be caused by the parent?s child relationship and would also somehow be the reason for the way a child adjusts during divorce. But after the research was completed, none of these were supported by the data obtained. The way the adolescents felt about divorce were not cause by the relationship they have with their parents. The learning theory was on the other hand supported, and more importantly so, where the child?s mother was concerned.
The adolescents who were able to relate with their mothers had a higher chance of adjusting better as opposed to those adolescents who did not relate to their moms.
     The relationship the adolescent had with their mother or father had any real effect on the attitudes towards divorce. There was also no support for the adolescent?s attitudes about divorce and any relation to the Life Orientation Questionnaire.
     There was also a regression analysis done to see if the child?s behavior toward their mother/father or if the way the child acted towards divorce were any kind of indication of how the child would adjust.
     It was discovered that the way a child acts towards his or her father/mother was a great indication of how the child was going to adjust, but the child?s feelings towards his or her parents had no great effect.
     But then when a three regression analyses was done, it not only separated the information gained into groups that had similar attitudes about divorce, but it also showed the greatest difference in feelings towards divorce in adolescents who were pretty well adjusted with divorced parents and in adolescents who were adjusted well with married parents.
     An analyses of variance, also known as ANOVA also showed that ATD scores were greater when a parent that a child could relate to asked for the divorce, as opposed to the parent whom the child could not relate to being the one asking for a divorce. But then the scores from the ATD test that held the highest scores about being most accepting of divorce were from those participants whose parents had a mutual decision about getting a divorce. No pattern was found, there was nothing out of the norm, and this was so because of the small amount of participants who could not understand their parent that was requesting the divorce, and also a small number of participants whose parents? divorce had been agreed upon by both.
     For it to be possible to test the importance of learning theory when it comes to talking about the different ways of adjustment, three variables needed to be considered, the nature of the parent?s adjustment, they way a child relates to that parents, and the way a child adjusts. The mothers who did not go through any adjustment problems were then separated into the groups where the item and the mother were able to relate to one another.
     A study of variance was done to see the differences between these groups. The adolescents whose mothers did not have any problems with adjustments were the ones who scored higher LOQ scores as opposed to the mother who did go through such problems. When mothers had no problems with adjustment, adolescents could relate to their mothers and showed a pattern that was not so great. There were 2 adolescents though who were part of this study and who felt that they could not relate to their mothers. The adolescents who could relate to their mothers had greater LOQ scores as opposed to those who could not relate to their mothers.
     There was no pattern found when the father?s adjustment was studied. The fathers did not have to deal with adjustment problems, and the had higher LOQ scores then those fathers who did have adjustment problems. There were no big differences in the LOQ scores of those adolescents who were able and unable to relate to their fathers in any of the groups. Out of this sample, 27 of the adolescents were raised mainly by their moms, 8 had been raised by both of their parents, and only 4 were raised by their father only.

Conclusion
     The purpose of this study, An Analysis of Schema Theory and Learning Theory as Explanations for Variance in Adolescent Adjustment to Divorce was to study schema theory and learning theory. The researchers wanted to see if there was any way to explain the difference in adolescent adjustment to divorce. A lot of the research showed how important the parent child relationship was in regards to adjustment, and this is proven true by the way a child behaves toward his/her mother. The adolescent?s behavior toward their mother was a great indication of adjustment.
     The way a child interacts with his/her parents was not a factor in how a child acts towards divorce. Also discovered was that the way one feels about divorce did not have any effect on adjustment to divorce. Therefore, the information gathered for this research could not in any way be used as a confirmation to the effect of schema theory to the way an adolescent adjusts to divorce.
     It was found however, that when the adolescent felt they could relate to the parent who is asking for a divorce, their attitude towards divorce was more accepting as opposed to the adolescent who did not relate to the parent who is asking for divorce. Only six cases in this information given that seemed to fit with the schema theory. There were then only 4 participants who said that divorce had to be a decision made by both parents. There is no trend where schema theory is concerned, and this indicates that there is not a need to do any more research in this area.
     The father?s adjustment pointed out that there was no obvious pattern, but the mother?s adjustment did have a great effect in the way the adolescent adjusted. There were 4 participants who were raised by their father alone, 27 participants who were raised by their mothers alone, and 8 participants who were raised by both. When the father had no big part in the adolescents growing up, it showed that the child?s adjustment would not be severely affected.
     As the learning theory suggested, the subgroup that had the greatest amount of adjustment was the group of adolescents who had mothers that did not experience adjustment problems, and where the adolescent felt they could relate to the mother. The learning theory also said that the adolescents would duplicate the way their parents adjusted to divorce, and they would also duplicate the parent?s behavior because they look at their parent as a role model. The difference found between adolescents who had mothers that did not experience and adjustment problems and felt they could relate to their mothers, and those who were not able to relate to their mothers was not that much greater from one another. There was no great difference because of the fact that there were only 2 participants who fell into this category, and because of this more research is needed in this area.
     The purpose of the other research, Assessments of Trust in Intimate Relationships and the Self Perception Process proved that trusting behaviors, whether it comes from one?s own self or from their partner is what brings the person to trust their partner more.
     It was also proven that a person?s own trusting actions brought out trust from the actor. This showed that they trusted the actor more because the actor did not know them or how they handled trust.
     This research also proved that the way a person manages their impressions is a reason to fight with self perception. With the differences between the participants who showed their behaviors after they had been reminded that the results would stay confidential and the participants who not reminded. So therefore, this proves that keeping trusting beliefs was changed in this study.
     The mirror manipulation which was meant to increase self awareness and the variable of relationship orientation came up with results no one was anticipating. When trusting behaviors happened in front of a mirror, even greater trusting-behavior effects happened. However, these effects happened with both the actor and the recipient.
     This research was limited because the sample was made up mainly of U.S. undergrads. The study could possibly have some signs of being from one specific area. Couples who are distressed are encouraged to make up behavioral contracts to promote a fair trade off in relationships by looking at a partner?s actions as opposed to their own.
          The process shows that the increases in trust was left unknown, however a self perception factor could be part of the reason for how trust develops.
     

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Child development research." 123HelpMe.com. 26 Nov 2014
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=58302>.




Related Searches





Important Note: If you'd like to save a copy of the paper on your computer, you can COPY and PASTE it into your word processor. Please, follow these steps to do that in Windows:

1. Select the text of the paper with the mouse and press Ctrl+C.
2. Open your word processor and press Ctrl+V.

Company's Liability

123HelpMe.com (the "Web Site") is produced by the "Company". The contents of this Web Site, such as text, graphics, images, audio, video and all other material ("Material"), are protected by copyright under both United States and foreign laws. The Company makes no representations about the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the Material or about the results to be obtained from using the Material. You expressly agree that any use of the Material is entirely at your own risk. Most of the Material on the Web Site is provided and maintained by third parties. This third party Material may not be screened by the Company prior to its inclusion on the Web Site. You expressly agree that the Company is not liable or responsible for any defamatory, offensive, or illegal conduct of other subscribers or third parties.

The Materials are provided on an as-is basis without warranty express or implied. The Company and its suppliers and affiliates disclaim all warranties, including the warranty of non-infringement of proprietary or third party rights, and the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose. The Company and its suppliers make no warranties as to the accuracy, reliability, completeness, or timeliness of the material, services, text, graphics and links.

For a complete statement of the Terms of Service, please see our website. By obtaining these materials you agree to abide by the terms herein, by our Terms of Service as posted on the website and any and all alterations, revisions and amendments thereto.



Return to 123HelpMe.com

Copyright © 2000-2014 123HelpMe.com. All rights reserved. Terms of Service