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An Analysis of the Epic Poem, Beowulf - Poetic Devices in Beowulf

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Poetic Devices in Beowulf

 
    There are a small variety of poetic devices employed in the composition of the poem Beowulf, and they are repeated numerous times.

 

The Old English poetry of Beowulf is distinguished primarily by its heavy use of  allliteration, or the repetition of the initial sounds of words. In the original manuscript version of the poem, alliteration is employed in almost every line (or two half-lines); in modern translations of the poem this is not so. In lines 4 and 5 of the poem we find:

 

Oft Scyld Scefing                               sceapena preatum

monegum maegpum                           meodo-setla ofteah

 

The repetition of the “s” sound in line 4 and of the “m” sound in line 5 illustrate alliteration, and this occurs throughout the poem, providing to the listener what the rhyme of modern-day poetry provides – an aesthetic sense of  rightness or pleasure. The Old English poet would “tie” the two half-lines together by their stressed alliteration (Chickering 4). Each line of poetry ideally contains four principal stresses, two on each side of a strong medial caesura, or pause. “At least one of the two stressed swords in the first half-line, and usually both of them, begin with the same sound as the first stressed word of the second half-line” (Donaldson 67). Such stressed alliterative binding together created hundreds of pairs that are used over and over, such as halig/heofon holy/heaven, dryhten/dugud lord/troop, fyren/feond sin/enemy. The pairs need not be complementary, but rather can be contrastive, like eadig/earm happy/wretched and wearm/winter warm/winter. These dictional contrasts provide the listener additional pleasure by surprising his expectations. The alliteration also includes stressed vowels (Tharaud 34).

 

These pairs are the backbone of Beowulf:  Prof. Magoun, in examining the poem, considers it probable that nearly 100% of the language in Beowulf is formulas, (88-89) or phrases from a common bank of phraseology that all poets drew their language from.

 

A second poetic device found in the poem is the reliance on kennings to portray the imagery of the poem. Kennings are compound expressions using characteristics to name something. The kenning hronrade literally means “whale-road,” which translates as “sea” to the listener or reader. There are hundreds of kennings in the poem:

 

         Life-lord           living Lord                    war-dress         armor

bed-companion            spouse              earth-dwellers   humans

kin-slaughter     killing of relatives          gift-throne         throne

wave-rider        boat                             sea-skilled        sailor

sea-currents      waves                           battle-dress      armor

battle-shirts       mail                              word-hoard      vocabulary

hearth-companions       friends              pitch-black       dark

shield-bearer    thane                            fire-hardened    forged

earth-dwellers   people                          war-gear          armor

 

The author of Beowulf employs a poetic device called litotes, wherein a positive statement is made by stating the negative of its opposite. When King Hrothgar is describing Grendel’s mere, he says: “Not a pleasant place” (1372). Near the end of the poem, when the hero has led his warriors to the shore where he suspected the fire-dragon resided and protected her riches: “no easy bargain for any man to try to acquire them” (2415-6) – another example of litotes. Beowulf recalls when “once Ongentheow sought out Eofor. . . the hand could recall enough of the quarrel, did not withhold the blow” (2486-89). As the hero went to face the fire-dragon, he “trusted the strength of a single man – hardly the coward’s way” (2540-41). As Beowulf enters into combat with the dragon: “the good war-king had already drawn his heirloom sword, an edge not dull” (2562-2564). When Wiglaf talks of the hero: “I know for a truth that the worth of his deeds is not so poor” (2656-57). Some of Beowulf’s final words: “Not often I swore deceitful oaths” (2739-40). I would estimate that nearly every page of the poem has an instance of litotes.

 

Another poetic device in the poem is the simile. It is not a popular device with this anonymous medieval poet. The simile uses “like” or “as” (either stated or implied) to compare two persons, places or things. In the poem when Beowulf’s party is sailing toward Dane-land:

 

Across open seas,                          blown by the wind,

the foamy-necked ship                    went like a bird, (217-18)

 

The phrase “like a bird” is the simile in this passage. Weohstan is said to have held the “mail-shirt and sword till his son was ready to show as much courage as his graying father” (2621-22). Wiglaf showed “strength and daring, as was his nature” (2696). Ongentheow threatened his enemies: “that some would swing on the gallows-tree as sport [for the birds] (2941-42). Wiglaf spoke to his people after the hro’s death: “often many earls must suffer . . . as we do now” (3077-78). When the warriors constructed Beowulf’s burial chamber, there were “walls as splendidly worked as men wise in skill knew how to fashion” 3161-62).

 

Toward the end of the poem, when Beowulf is pondering his past, he recalls how King Hrethel’s younger son Haethcyn accidentally shot and killed his older brother, Herebeald, with an arrow, and what a devastating impact this tragedy had on King Hrethel, the Weder-king. Here the poet uses an extended simile to compare the king in his sorrow to the elderly father of a son who dies on the gallows:

 

“So it is bitter                                  for an old man

to have seen his son                        go riding high,

young on the gallows;                      then may he tell

a true sorrow-song,                        when his son swings,

a joy to the raven,                           and old and wise

and sad, he cannot                          help him at all. . . .

                                                      Thus the Weder-king

carried in his heart                           overflowing grief

for Herebeald (2444-64)

 

The poetic devices used in this classic poem are not great in variety, but indeed considerable in their repetition.

 

                                                BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Chickering, Howell D.. Beowulf A dual-Language Edition. New York: Anchor Books, 1977.

 

Donaldson, E. Talbot. “Old English Prosody and Caedmon’s Hymn.” Beowulf: The Donaldson Translation, edited by Joseph F. Tuso. New York, W.W.Norton and Co.: 1975.

 

Magoun, Frances P. “Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry.”  In TheBeowulf Poet, edited by Donald K. Fry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968.

 

Tharaud, Barry. “Anglo-Saxon Language and Traditions in Beowulf.” In Readings on Beowulf, edited by Stephen P. Thompson. San Diego: Greenhaven Press,1998.

 

 

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