Job Analysis


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Here are some key points and ideas about exercises we could do in class. PLease contact me if you have any questions. I think we could have the speaker and do the mock interview I suggested toward the end of this e-mail. Shana Cohn CLASS DESIGN Important points, class discussion questions and activities. Part I Job Analysis defined: Identifying lists of activities or tasks associated with the job. Determining the skills needed to perform the job successfully. A well-designed job analysis can help to create a work environment where expectations are clear and future problems can be alleviated through communication. Some detailed benefits of job analysis include: 1. It provides uniform guidelines for dealing with employment selection, compensation, performance standards, and the skills needed for any given position. 2. It lays a foundation for gaining a competitive advantage by identifying training needs for the incumbent employee or an employee entering into the organization. 3. A successful job analysis draws clear boundaries between the employer and employee regarding qualifications, job responsibilities, lines of authority, and ways of preventing or dealing with grievances. 4. It allows employers to hire qualified candidates by linking applicants' skills to the job analysis. Employers can also prove that their requirements for selection are related to the job. The ADA defines a qualified applicant as "one who can perform the essential functions of the job." A job analysis provides the employer with justification of why they chose a particular applicant. Other areas to note: 1. The most common reason for a job analysis is to gather information for job descriptions. The job description should focus on results and outcomes instead of how to accomplish the job, because each person attains results in a different fashion. 2. Preparation for the future is key to dealing with a changing workplace. The job analysis should integrate issues the organization may confront in the future, such as turnover and technology advances that could change its structure. 3. Forecasting HR needs is critical to the success of the organization. These should be assessed with past trends, evaluating the skills of incumbent positions, and being aware of changing skills and requirements. Some questions/activities regarding job analysis: A class activity would be a case study that involves a new person hired into an organization where a job analysis is not utilized. The following questions serve as a guideline for the types of issues that could arise without a clear job analysis.

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1. What kinds of human resource problems can occur if little thought is given to creating a job analysis? 2. Are there legal implications for HR departments that do not consider policies on diversity and sexual harassment in their job analysis? What types of legal issues could be prevented by a clear job analysis? 3. How much input should incumbent employees have in the job analysis? Do HR departments hesitate to include them in the shaping of the analysis or are they considered viable resources? What sorts of problems could arise by using employee input to create job descriptions? 4. What kinds of problems could be avoided when the organization uses a job analysis in regards to ways of dealing with employee grievances? What are the implications of the HR department being inconsistent with the policies they set in the analysis? Part II. Recruitment and Orientation: A strong case is made for using the criteria created in the job analysis to guide agency recruitment practices. Through the analysis, the employer is able to assess the Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, Personal Characteristics and Credentials they are looking for in their job applicants. It is important for the HR manager to evaluate the content, context and requirements of the position before and during the recruitment process. Other things to consider in the recruitment process: 1. Planning for the future. Succession planning: identifying people already in the organization to fill an unexpected void. Recruitment within. Class questions: What are some of the main advantages of this approach to recruitment from a HR perspective? What are some of the problems that could arise from only recruiting within? (Homogeneous workplace, lack of diversity and new skills). 2. A HR department must find the recruiting method that produces the best pool of applicants. A recruiting program has the goals of cost efficiency, attracting highly qualified candidates, ensuring people who are hired have a long term commitment, recruiting a diverse workforce, and abiding by laws. HR often recruits by posting openings in professional journals to directly target the people with skills they are looking for. Questions: a. What are some non-traditional avenues for posting job openings that would target a diverse population? b. How should the job advertisement be worded? What are some important elements to include in attracting qualified applicants? 3. Interaction with the recruiter is often the first relationship that the applicant has with the company. Therefore it is crucial that the recruiter has good interpersonal skills, because the applicant is more likely to view the organization and the job favorably. Question: What are some of the advantages of using professional recruitment firms? (Knowledge of laws, saves the organization time, firm has an objective viewpoint). Effective recruiting is a process that starts with the identification of the job opening, deciding how to fill it (does the job necessarily need to be filled?), and identifying core (permanent) versus contingency (services are loaned to the agency) personnel. A good way to discourage unqualified applicants is by clearly stating the qualifications in the job notification. Question: What are some areas the candidates should be made aware of about the job during the initial interview? Class Activity: Each class member gets a partner and does a mock interview for 10 to 15 minutes. The challenge for the interviewer is to give off a positive image about the nonprofit organization they are representing. The interviewer is impressed with the candidate's qualifications and believes this applicant would fit in well at the organization. But, when the discussion of benefits arises, the conversation gets tense because the nonprofit organization does not offer a 401k plan, and it is very expensive to add a domestic partner or spouse on to the health coverage. The interviewer has the following challenge: How do I make a favorable impression of the nonprofit and also be as informative and realist as possible about what the job and its benefits entail? You as the interviewer should be competent and not get defensive. You should try to convince the applicant that this is still the best organization for them. The candidate has already interviewed at several organizations. You as the candidate think you would fit in well at this nonprofit, because you would be contributing to a mission you believe in. The only problem is that the other positions you have applied for offer comprehensive benefits with equivalent pay. You can not transfer the 401k you had from your last job to this job, which is unsettling. And, your partner is a full-time student with mediocre health care. You were hoping to get a job where your partner could be added on to your benefits for a reasonable price. The candidate should express their discomfort with the lack of benefits and ask questions as to why they should still accept a job at this nonprofit. Orientation: 1. Training needs must be assessed. 2. Determine how to train in a way that is participatory and interesting. People learn in different ways so it is important to not only give out factual information but to also create training activities that are interactive. 3. How should the trained materials be applied to the job? Be sure the training is practical enough that it is actually what employees need to know to become well versed with the job. 4. Do follow-up. After the trainee has gotten to know the job, have them assess the strengths and weaknesses of their training. This can help strengthen the training program in the future.


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