Aptitude Treatment Interaction Research

:: 5 Works Cited
Length: 1623 words (4.6 double-spaced pages)
Rating: Excellent
Open Document
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Text Preview

More ↓

Continue reading...

Open Document

Aptitude Treatment Interaction Research

Since the beginning of formal education, teachers/educators have sought the best method of instruction to maximize the learning potential of their students. It was recognized early that students differ in intelligence, ability to learn, background, environment, learning style, and many other factors that affected their progress through the educational system. Over time the classroom became the place for a teacher’s intuition, experiences, and impressions of the child to be the guidebook (Cronbach & Snow, 1969). As a result, aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) research developed as a way to find the best methods of instruction for the student population.

Historical Perspective and Definitions

ATI hypotheses were in ancient Chinese and Hebrew writings, in early Greek and Roman teaching, and early European philosophies. ATI, however, emerged as a modern research program when defined by Cronbach (1957) for instructional psychology. Since then, ATI research has been used extensively in the field of education and more recently in industrial and clinical psychology (Snow, 1991).

As with any study, definitions are integral to the understanding of the topic. According to Snow (1991), "aptitude should refer to any measurable person characteristic hypothesized to be needed as preparation for response to treatment to successful goal achievement in the treatment(s) studied" (p.205). This writer prefers the definition given by Cronbach and Snow where "aptitude is defined as any characteristic of the individual that increases (or impairs) his probability of success in a given treatment" (Cronbach & Snow, 1969, p. 5). Cronbach and Snow also say that aptitude is, essentially, whatever makes a person ready to learn rapidly (or to adapt effectively to his environment). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language simply states that aptitude is the ability or inclination of an individual to develop skills or acquire knowledge (1969). Intelligence, motivation, and anxiety seem to be the most common aptitudes studied.

Snow states that treatment is any manipulative situation variable (Snow 1991). In the education field, treatment refers to the teaching methods and techniques measured by the outcome of a post-test (Peck, 1983). Teacher characteristics and differences in teaching styles are treatments affecting the learning of students.

Interaction is defined statistically as the degree to which results for two or more treatments, or one treatment over two or more trials, differ for persons who also differ on one or more aptitude measures (Snow, 1991). This writer believes that interaction in the context of ATI refers to bi-directional action observed between the aptitude variables of the subject and the teaching techniques and methods of the instructor.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"Aptitude Treatment Interaction Research." 123HelpMe.com. 26 Apr 2017
Title Length Color Rating  
Schizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis Essay - Schizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis In 1809, physician John Haslam published an account of what he considered “A form of insanity”. Haslam described many symptoms that are relevant to modern day schizophrenia including delusions of grandeur and hallucinations. During the latter part of the nineteenth century, a German psychiatrist named Emil Kraepelin expanded on Haslam’s views and gave a more accurate description of schizophrenia as we know it today. Kraeplin started off by combining terms including different types of insanity under one term: Catatonia, and delusions of grandeur and persecution: paranoia....   [tags: disorder, medical treatment, social interaction]
:: 5 Works Cited
1181 words
(3.4 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Interaction between Epistemology, Methodology, and Methods in Qualitative Research - Nursing research has been a part of the nursing profession for many years, consisting of both qualitative and quantitative research. It is essential in guiding nursing practice. Many nurses have a baseline understanding of research in general, but when conducting research it is important also to understand personal values and beliefs to guide the type of research to conduct. Understanding the differences between epistemology, methodology, and methods, will assist in this choice to conduct a valid research project....   [tags: health, nursing]
:: 12 Works Cited
1868 words
(5.3 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Interaction Design Essay - 1. AESTHETICS OF INTERACTION DESIGN As being a designer I always try to design something new, creative and interactive. Most of the people think that designers are born to modify and beautify things, which is totally wrong designers give directions of living; they transform the ugly into beautiful things. I have a deep interest in aesthetics and that I am tackling with the concept of aesthetics on a daily basis, in words as well as in drawings, movies, prototypes and other artifacts of interaction design....   [tags: Interaction Design Essays]
:: 11 Works Cited
2644 words
(7.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Magnetic Water and Treatment: Myth or Magic? Essay example - It is important that everyone know of the need to improve our energy and water savings and assist in reducing the use of electricity, water, and non-renewable fuel sources. There are a number of non-chemical, non-mechanical water treatment technologies. Many of these are known by names such as electronic, magnetic, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and AC induction. The history of these devices goes back to at least 1952. Claims for and against the effectiveness of such systems have a long history....   [tags: Electromagnetic Water Treatment]
:: 8 Works Cited
1124 words
(3.2 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay on Review of New Treatment for Brain Cancer Research - The review and evaluation of the research grant request from Large University Hospital was completed using the “Peer Review Process” format below (Office of Extramural Research, 2011). Large University Hospital’s (LUH) research team has completed their pilot study on an innovative treatment for late stage brain cancer patients. The study began within four weeks of the patient’s agreement to participate. Overall Impact. This study revealed the new treatment for late stage brain cancer patients increased the mean number of weeks patients survived from 9.6 to 10.75....   [tags: Medical Research]
:: 1 Works Cited
939 words
(2.7 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Essay on Interaction Ritual by Erving Goffman - Introduction Erving Goffman (1922-1982) held the position of Benjamin Franklin Professor of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. He served as President of the American Sociological Association in the year leading up to his death in 1982. Goffman is considered as the pioneer of the study of face-to-face interaction and has made a substantial contribution to micro-sociology. He is recognised as a major figure in the symbolic interaction perspective. In 2007 he was listed as the sixth most cited author in the humanities and social sciences (The Times Higher Education Guide, 2007)....   [tags: social interaction, behavior]
:: 10 Works Cited
1354 words
(3.9 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]
Essay on Differences in Math Learning and Aptitude Between Boys and Girls - Differences in Math Learning and Aptitude Between Boys and Girls The topic of my research has been differences in math learning and aptitude between boys and girls. This topic was suggested to me by my mentor, Mike Millo, as it is of particular interest to him. Mr. Millo is an Algebra teacher at Ball High. Much has been made of gender differences in math by the popular media and Mr. Millo felt that it would be interesting to examine this topic and explore the findings of educational researchers....   [tags: Papers] 1550 words
(4.4 pages)
Better Essays [preview]
Interaction between Plant Hosts and Pathogens Essay - ... These function optimally at a low pH and are often secreted with oxalic acid that serves to lower the pH of the cell walls. EndoPGs at this low pH are able to escape PGIP inactivation due to a one of two hypotheses. First, it may be due to the low pH that significantly enhances the enoPG activity by binding to the enzyme’s active site, thereby stabilizing it. Secondly, it allows the cell wall to be more accessible to endoPG enzymes by sequestrating the Ca2+ ions. Third, oxalate may have a direct effect on PGIPs themselves, although this mechanism is still unknown....   [tags: biochemistry, biological interaction]
:: 2 Works Cited
1963 words
(5.6 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Cost Considerations in the Treatment of Schizophrenia Essay - In the United States, schizophrenia is most widely understood as a biogenetically determined illness. Those given this diagnosis are seen as unlikely to recover. In the West, pharmacological treatment is the primary intervention offered by mainstream mental health practitioners. However, in the United States and abroad, there is growing controversy about both the causes of and efficacy of treatment for individuals who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia. A longitudinal study launched in 1969 by the staff of the World Health Organization reported that in the United States, Denmark and Taiwan, 40% of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were found to be “severely impaired;” whereas in t...   [tags: mental health, treatment]
:: 18 Works Cited
1921 words
(5.5 pages)
Term Papers [preview]
Radioimmunotherapy as a Treatment for Lymphoma Essay - Radioimmunotherapy A new innovative cancer treatment called Radioimmunotherapy or RIT joins conventional radiation therapy with immunotherapy. RIT uses monoclonal antibodies to target specific cancer cells and minimize damage to surrounding cells and tissue. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are laboratory made immune proteins engineered to attach to antigens of specific cells. These antibodies mimic antibodies naturally produced as part of the immune system. Originally MAbs were made completely from mice cells and when these were introduced into the human body, the immune system would react against them....   [tags: Cancer Treatment Medical Science]
:: 8 Works Cited
1339 words
(3.8 pages)
Strong Essays [preview]

Related Searches

Cronbach and Snow say that in interaction research an interaction is present when an effect is found for one find of subject or in one kind of setting and is not found under other conditions (Cronbach & Snow, 1991).

Peck (1983) states that ATI is research correlating teaching methods with measures of student aptitudes finding that students may respond differently to a particular method depending on such variables as intelligence, learning style, or personality. One major question that has developed from ATI research is the ability to transfer the findings by generalizing the results to other groups. Does ATI have educational value?

Research Design

Four basic research designs, standard, treatment revision, aptitude growth, and regression discontinuity, have been recognized in ATI research. The standard design has been used in one form or another for educational purposes. The standard design is a simple randomized between-persons design where treatments are applied toward identified aptitudes to produce optimal outcomes. The outcomes must be measurable; and must be measured prior to treatment and after treatment is applied. The statistics often calculate regression and show correlation coefficients, R and R2, as well as significance of the test.

One study, Aptitude-Treatment Interaction in Computer-Assisted Instruction, examined the relationship between grade point average (GPA) and American College Testing (ACT) scores, and achievement with and without computer-assisted instruction (CAI) (Adams, Waldrop, Justen, McCroskey, 1987). This study consisted of 35 students all taking a physiology of activity course. Six instructional units were taught, three with traditional lecture/class discussion and three with traditional classroom procedures enhanced by CAI. The study results indicated that the student’s inclination toward learning and achievement as measured by GPA and ACT scores was higher significantly with CAI than without CAI. Also, GPA was a better overall predictor of achievement than was the ACT.

A second study proved to be very interesting in its investigation of the relationship between the measurable aptitude of cognitive restructuring ability and treatments that varied the amount of teacher guidance (Cramer, Post, Behr, 1984). This study involved 22 fourth graders identified as having either high or low cognitive restructuring ability. The high guidance treatment was teacher-centered with little student choice. The teacher’s role in the low guidance treatment was to provide students with the opportunity to investigate problems on their own. If a strong interaction appeared, for example, between classes and not within classes, a group level effect is the simplest explanation (Cronbach & Webb, 1975). The results showed an inverse relationship between cognitive restructuring ability and teacher guidance. The students with low cognitive restructuring ability performed better with high levels of teacher guidance and students with high cognitive restructuring ability performed better with low levels of teacher guidance (Cramer, Post, Behr, 1984).

The study of learning rates also seems to be a predominant concern in ATI research. ATI proposes that different learning rates will be different under different circumstances. Until the 1960’s, rate of learning was a background issue. The new science and math curricula, programmed instruction, the concept of intelligence as the ability to learn, and the idea that change could be measured each made an impact on the importance of rate of learning. Each should be studied in conjunction with ATI.

Significant Findings from ATI Research

Several significant findings have come to the foreground from ATI research. In general, no one technique or procedure has been found to benefit both the good and poor student. In addition, no one teaching technique or procedure has been found to benefit all subjects within a homogeneous group even though many public schools today choose to group homogeneously as a way to adapt to individual differences (Peck, 1983). Student characteristics and teaching methods are so varied that unless teachers and students are constant, ATI research results can not be consistent.

Structure within the classroom (lectures, pictures, outlines, rules, etc.) have produced improvement for slower students. The compulsive, weak student appears to do best in the structured program, while the student who is emotionally free to provide his own structure does better in the unstructured program. Less structure in the classroom (small group discussions, discovery activities, individual progression, etc.) encourages better students. Students with more internal motivation had difficulty participating in group activities and performed more poorly than those with less (Peck, 1983).


Because of ATI research, we now sometimes attempt to adapt instruction to the learner. The least responsible method is "fixing the curriculum and method of instruction and adjust through initial selection of students while allowing for dropouts" (Cronbach & Snow, 1969, p. 201). The public school tends to "tune" the student so that he scores higher. Choosing different educational goals for different persons is a second alternative to adapting instruction. A third alternative is choosing different educational means toward the same goal. (Cronbach & Snow, 1969).

Can methods of instruction be found to better serve the student whose fluid ability (ability to analyze) is high relative to his crystallized ability (ability to think concretely). Several debates may crop up in the realm of education. Peck (1983) speculates that (1) an individually prescribed instruction (an IEP or individualized education program) for every student might come about and would mean an allocation of funds for more teaching time and better testing services. (2) Home learning (home school) or cottage-type learning will replace the public classroom where individualized attention is at a premium. (3) A public debate over educating only groups of students would ensue. We would ask, "where should we direct teaching…toward the slow learner, the brighter student or neither of these?" What is the socially accepted answer?

The ATI view may open important approaches to teacher education as the teacher training programs realize the impact of techniques and methods as treatments on the aptitude of the individual learner in the classroom. The hope is that ATI research does not degenerate into a trial-and-error process due to the large number of aptitude and treatment variables to measure, but that education as a whole can benefit from ATI research.


Adams II, T. M. , Waldrop, P. B. , Justen III, J. E., & McCroskey, C. H. (December 1987). Aptitude-treatment interaction in computer-assisted instruction. Educational Technology, 27, 12. 21-23.

Cramer, L. A., Post, T. R., & Behr, M. J. (January 1984). Cognitive restructuring ability, teacher guidance, and perceptual distracter tasks: an aptitude-treatment interaction study. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 20, 1, 103-110.

Cronbach, L. J., & snow, R. E. (1969). Individual differences in learning ability as a function of instructional variables. final report. Stanford University, CA: School of Education.

Cronbach, L. J., & Webb, N. (December 1975). Between-class and within-class effects in a reported aptitude x treatment interaction: reanalysis of a study by G. L. Anderson. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 6. 717-724.

Morris, W. (1969). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Languages. Boston: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc.

Peck, M. L. (1983). Aptitude treatment interaction research has educational value. Proceedings of selected research paper presentations at the 1983 convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology and sponsored by the Research and Theory Division. (pp. 564-622). New Orleans: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

Snow, R. E. (April 1991). Aptitude-treatment interaction as a framework for research on individual differences in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 2, 205-216.

Return to 123HelpMe.com